Topic

# Electron shell

About: Electron shell is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2353 publications have been published within this topic receiving 43491 citations.

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TL;DR: The available body of information on fluorescence, Auger, and Coster-Kronig yields, radiative and radiationless transition rates, level widths, and x-ray and Auger line widths is presented in this article.

Abstract: The available body of information on (a) fluorescence, Auger, and Coster‐Kronig yields, (b) radiative and radiationless transition rates, (c) level widths, (d) x‐ray and Auger line widths, (e) x‐ray and Auger spectra, and (f) Coster‐Kronig energies has been used to generate an internally consistent set of values of atomic radiative and radiationless yields for the K shell (5 ?Z?110) and the L subshells (12 ?Z?110). Values of fluorescence yields ωk, ω1, ω2, ω3, Coster‐Kronig yields F1, F1.2, F1.3, F1.3, F2.3. Auger yields ak, a1, a2, a3, and effective fluorescence yields ν1 and ν2 are presented in tables and graphs. Estimates of uncertainties are given. Updated and expanded graphs of partial and total widths of K, L1, L2, and L3 levels are presented as well as a reference list of papers published since about 1972.

1,703 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the internal conversion coefficient, number of electrons per photon emitted in a nuclear transition, is presented from a new relativistic selfconsistent field calculation which takes into account finite nuclear size, hole and exchange effects, experimental electron binding energies, and vacuum polarization.

Abstract: Values of the internal conversion coefficient, number of electrons per photon emitted in a nuclear transition, are presented from a new relativistic self-consistent-field calculation which takes into account finite nuclear size, hole and exchange effects, experimental electron binding energies, and vacuum polarization. Coefficients are given for each value of Z ; for K, L , and M electron shells and L - and M -sub-shells; for nuclear-transition multipolarities E1…E4, M1…M4; and for various nuclear-transition energies up to 1500 keV. A program for finding values for other energies by spline interpolation is appended.

1,011 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review recent developments in Kα and Kβ spectroscopy and show how the chemical sensitivity of the fluorescence lines can be exploited for selective X-ray absorption studies.

Abstract: The creation of a 1s core hole in a 3d transition metal ion gives rise to an emission spectrum that can be recorded using a crystal analyzer. K shell X-ray spectroscopy using an analyser energy bandwidth of ∼1 eV is sensitive to electron–electron interactions and orbital splittings and preserves the advantages of the hard X-ray probe. We review recent developments in Kα and Kβ spectroscopy and show how the chemical sensitivity of the fluorescence lines can be exploited for selective X-ray absorption studies. When the photo excitation energy is tuned close to the K edge threshold, the phenomenon known as X-ray resonant Raman or resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) occurs. RIXS spectroscopy on 3d transition metals at the 1s resonances with lowest incident energies (K pre-edge) is a very recent technique. We discuss basic aspects and demonstrate with several examples its potential as a future routine spectroscopic tool.

775 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the strong repulsion between atoms at close renge, due to the interpentration of complete electron shells, can be represented by a function P(r)e-r/p, where r is separation of the atomic nuclei and P( r) a polynomial in r.

Abstract: The deviations from the equation of state for perfect gases which are observed in all known gases result from the interactions of their constituent atoms or molecules. The excess pressures observed at all but the lowest temperatures show that the dominating factor is the strong repulsion between atoms at close renge, due to the interpentration of complete electron shells. Little is known about these repulsions, and that is readily summarized. Between atoms with spherically symmetrical distributions it is likely that the repulsive potential is accurately represented by a function P(r)e-r/p , (1) Where r is separation of the atomic nuclei and P(r) a polynomial in r . Quantum theoretical calculations made by Slater (1928) for helium atoms (with a closed shell of two electrons) and by Bleick and Mayer (1934) for neon atoms (with a closed shell of eight electrons) show that an adequate expression may sometimes be obtained if the polynomial is replaced by a constant. Some confirmation of this (though over a very restricted range of r ) is given by Born and Mayer (1932) and Huggins (1937), whose work on ionic cubic crystals shows that their elastic properties are admirably correlated when the repulsive potential of two ions of rare gas type is represented by an exponential function be-r/p , with a range of about one atomic diameter.

716 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a double focusing electrostatic electron spectrometer has been used to measure the K-LL Auger spectra resulting from electron impact for each of the elements in the gaseous molecules N2, O2, CO, NO, H2O, and CO2.

Abstract: A double‐focusing electrostatic electron spectrometer has been used to measure the K—LL Auger spectra resulting from electron impact for each of the elements in the gaseous molecules N2, O2, CO, NO, H2O, and CO2. An energy resolution of 0.09% full width half‐maximum was normally employed. A method for analyzing these complex spectra is described. It involves the identification of normal and satellite lines. The former are defined as arising from single electron ionization from the K shell without additional excitation followed by an Auger process in which one electron fills the vacancy while a second goes into the continuum, and where all the other electrons remain in their same orbitals. Satellite lines result when extra excitation occurs either in the initial formation of the K vacancy or in the subsequent Auger process. To aid in the identification of these satellite lines, auxiliary experiments have been performed such as the study of discrete energy losses in photoionization due to electron shake‐up,...

460 citations