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Electronic design automation

About: Electronic design automation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6926 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 92299 citation(s). The topic is also known as: EDA & electronic computer-aided design.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2000
TL;DR: A model for types and levels of automation is outlined that can be applied to four broad classes of functions: 1) information acquisition; 2) information analysis; 3) decision and action selection; and 4) action implementation.
Abstract: We outline a model for types and levels of automation that provides a framework and an objective basis for deciding which system functions should be automated and to what extent. Appropriate selection is important because automation does not merely supplant but changes human activity and can impose new coordination demands on the human operator. We propose that automation can be applied to four broad classes of functions: 1) information acquisition; 2) information analysis; 3) decision and action selection; and 4) action implementation. Within each of these types, automation can be applied across a continuum of levels from low to high, i.e., from fully manual to fully automatic. A particular system can involve automation of all four types at different levels. The human performance consequences of particular types and levels of automation constitute primary evaluative criteria for automation design using our model. Secondary evaluative criteria include automation reliability and the costs of decision/action consequences, among others. Examples of recommended types and levels of automation are provided to illustrate the application of the model to automation design.

2,884 citations

Book
29 Dec 1995
Abstract: Progressive in content and form, this practical book successfully bridges the gap between the circuit perspective and system perspective of digital integrated circuit design. Digital Integrated Circuits maintains a consistent, logical flow of subject matter throughout. Addresses today's most significant and compelling industry topics, including: the impact of interconnect, design for low power, issues in timing and clocking, design methodologies, and the tremendous effect of design automation on the digital design perspective. For readers interested in digital circuit design.

1,348 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the power estimation techniques that have recently been proposed for very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits is presented.
Abstract: With the advent of portable and high-density microelectronic devices, the power dissipation of very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits is becoming a critical concern. Accurate and efficient power estimation during the design phase is required in order to meet the power specifications without a costly redesign process. In this paper, we present a review of the power estimation techniques that have recently been proposed. >

685 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work developed TrueNorth, a 65 mW real-time neurosynaptic processor that implements a non-von Neumann, low-power, highly-parallel, scalable, and defect-tolerant architecture, and successfully demonstrated the use of TrueNorth-based systems in multiple applications, including visual object recognition.
Abstract: The new era of cognitive computing brings forth the grand challenge of developing systems capable of processing massive amounts of noisy multisensory data. This type of intelligent computing poses a set of constraints, including real-time operation, low-power consumption and scalability, which require a radical departure from conventional system design. Brain-inspired architectures offer tremendous promise in this area. To this end, we developed TrueNorth, a 65 mW real-time neurosynaptic processor that implements a non-von Neumann, low-power, highly-parallel, scalable, and defect-tolerant architecture. With 4096 neurosynaptic cores, the TrueNorth chip contains 1 million digital neurons and 256 million synapses tightly interconnected by an event-driven routing infrastructure. The fully digital 5.4 billion transistor implementation leverages existing CMOS scaling trends, while ensuring one-to-one correspondence between hardware and software. With such aggressive design metrics and the TrueNorth architecture breaking path with prevailing architectures, it is clear that conventional computer-aided design (CAD) tools could not be used for the design. As a result, we developed a novel design methodology that includes mixed asynchronous–synchronous circuits and a complete tool flow for building an event-driven, low-power neurosynaptic chip. The TrueNorth chip is fully configurable in terms of connectivity and neural parameters to allow custom configurations for a wide range of cognitive and sensory perception applications. To reduce the system’s communication energy, we have adapted existing application-agnostic very large-scale integration CAD placement tools for mapping logical neural networks to the physical neurosynaptic core locations on the TrueNorth chips. With that, we have successfully demonstrated the use of TrueNorth-based systems in multiple applications, including visual object recognition, with higher performance and orders of magnitude lower power consumption than the same algorithms run on von Neumann architectures. The TrueNorth chip and its tool flow serve as building blocks for future cognitive systems, and give designers an opportunity to develop novel brain-inspired architectures and systems based on the knowledge obtained from this paper.

683 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2016-Science
TL;DR: Electronic design automation principles from EDA are applied to enable increased circuit complexity and to simplify the incorporation of synthetic gene regulation into genetic engineering projects, and it is demonstrated that engineering principles can be applied to identify and suppress errors that complicate the compositions of larger systems.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION Cells respond to their environment, make decisions, build structures, and coordinate tasks. Underlying these processes are computational operations performed by networks of regulatory proteins that integrate signals and control the timing of gene expression. Harnessing this capability is critical for biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization. It has been shown that cells can be programmed using synthetic genetic circuits composed of regulators organized to generate a desired operation. However, the construction of even simple circuits is time-intensive and unreliable. RATIONALE Electronic design automation (EDA) was developed to aid engineers in the design of semiconductor-based electronics. In an effort to accelerate genetic circuit design, we applied principles from EDA to enable increased circuit complexity and to simplify the incorporation of synthetic gene regulation into genetic engineering projects. We used the hardware description language Verilog to enable a user to describe a circuit function. The user also specifies the sensors, actuators, and “user constraints file” (UCF), which defines the organism, gate technology, and valid operating conditions. Cello (www.cellocad.org) uses this information to automatically design a DNA sequence encoding the desired circuit. This is done via a set of algorithms that parse the Verilog text, create the circuit diagram, assign gates, balance constraints to build the DNA, and simulate performance. RESULTS Cello designs circuits by drawing upon a library of Boolean logic gates. Here, the gate technology consists of NOT/NOR logic based on repressors. Gate connection is simplified by defining the input and output signals as RNA polymerase (RNAP) fluxes. We found that the gates need to be insulated from their genetic context to function reliably in the context of different circuits. Each gate is isolated using strong terminators to block RNAP leakage, and input interchangeability is improved using ribozymes and promoter spacers. These parts are varied for each gate to avoid breakage due to recombination. Measuring the load of each gate and incorporating this into the optimization algorithms further reduces evolutionary pressure. Cello was applied to the design of 60 circuits for Escherichia coli , where the circuit function was specified using Verilog code and transformed to a DNA sequence. The DNA sequences were built as specified with no additional tuning, requiring 880,000 base pairs of DNA assembly. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts). Across all circuits, 92% of the 412 output states functioned as predicted. CONCLUSION Our work constitutes a hardware description language for programming living cells. This required the co-development of design algorithms with gates that are sufficiently simple and robust to be connected by automated algorithms. We demonstrate that engineering principles can be applied to identify and suppress errors that complicate the compositions of larger systems. This approach leads to highly repetitive and modular genetics, in stark contrast to the encoding of natural regulatory networks. The use of a hardware-independent language and the creation of additional UCFs will allow a single design to be transformed into DNA for different organisms, genetic endpoints, operating conditions, and gate technologies.

652 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021201
2020229
2019226
2018222
2017180