About: Electrophilic substitution is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3502 publications have been published within this topic receiving 64724 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jun 1977
TL;DR: Localized Chemical bonding Delocalized Chemical Bonding Bonding Weaker than Covalent Stereochemistry Carbocations, Carbanions, Free Radicals, Carbenes and Nitrenes Mechanisms and Methods of Determining them Photochemistry Acids and Bases Effects of Structure on Reactivity Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Aromatic Electrophilic Substitutes Aliphatically Electrophilic Substitution Free-Radical Substitution Addition to Carbon-Carbon Multiple Bonds Adding to Carbon Hetero Multiple Bonds Eliminations Rearrangements Ox
Abstract: Localized Chemical bonding Delocalized Chemical Bonding Bonding Weaker than Covalent Stereochemistry Carbocations, Carbanions, Free Radicals, Carbenes and Nitrenes Mechanisms and Methods of Determining Them Photochemistry Acids and Bases Effects of Structure on Reactivity Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution Aromatic Electrophilic Substitution Aliphatic Electrophilic Substitution Free-Radical Substitution Addition to Carbon-Carbon Multiple Bonds Addition to Carbon- Hetero Multiple Bonds Eliminations Rearrangements Oxidations and Reductions The Literature of Organic Chemistry Classifications of Reactions by Type of Compound Synthesized.
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the same alkylhydridoplatinum(IV) complex is the intermediate in the reaction of ethane with platinum(II) σ-complexes.
Abstract: ion. The oxidative addition mechanism was originally proposed22i because of the lack of a strong rate dependence on polar factors and on the acidity of the medium. Later, however, the electrophilic substitution mechanism also was proposed. Recently, the oxidative addition mechanism was confirmed by investigations into the decomposition and protonolysis of alkylplatinum complexes, which are the reverse of alkane activation. There are two routes which operate in the decomposition of the dimethylplatinum(IV) complex Cs2Pt(CH3)2Cl4. The first route leads to chloride-induced reductive elimination and produces methyl chloride and methane. The second route leads to the formation of ethane. There is strong kinetic evidence that the ethane is produced by the decomposition of an ethylhydridoplatinum(IV) complex formed from the initial dimethylplatinum(IV) complex. In D2O-DCl, the ethane which is formed contains several D atoms and has practically the same multiple exchange parameter and distribution as does an ethane which has undergone platinum(II)-catalyzed H-D exchange with D2O. Moreover, ethyl chloride is formed competitively with H-D exchange in the presence of platinum(IV). From the principle of microscopic reversibility it follows that the same ethylhydridoplatinum(IV) complex is the intermediate in the reaction of ethane with platinum(II). Important results were obtained by Labinger and Bercaw62c in the investigation of the protonolysis mechanism of several alkylplatinum(II) complexes at low temperatures. These reactions are important because they could model the microscopic reverse of C-H activation by platinum(II) complexes. Alkylhydridoplatinum(IV) complexes were observed as intermediates in certain cases, such as when the complex (tmeda)Pt(CH2Ph)Cl or (tmeda)PtMe2 (tmeda ) N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylenediamine) was treated with HCl in CD2Cl2 or CD3OD, respectively. In some cases H-D exchange took place between the methyl groups on platinum and the, CD3OD prior to methane loss. On the basis of the kinetic results, a common mechanism was proposed to operate in all the reactions: (1) protonation of Pt(II) to generate an alkylhydridoplatinum(IV) intermediate, (2) dissociation of solvent or chloride to generate a cationic, fivecoordinate platinum(IV) species, (3) reductive C-H bond formation, producing a platinum(II) alkane σ-complex, and (4) loss of the alkane either through an associative or dissociative substitution pathway. These results implicate the presence of both alkane σ-complexes and alkylhydridoplatinum(IV) complexes as intermediates in the Pt(II)-induced C-H activation reactions. Thus, the first step in the alkane activation reaction is formation of a σ-complex with the alkane, which then undergoes oxidative addition to produce an alkylhydrido complex. Reversible interconversion of these intermediates, together with reversible deprotonation of the alkylhydridoplatinum(IV) complexes, leads to multiple H-D exchange
TL;DR: Comparison of chlorine to ozone reactivity towards aromatic compounds (electrophilic attack) shows a good correlation, with chlorine rate constants being about four orders of magnitude smaller than those for ozone.
Abstract: Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with chlorine. However, for certain compounds, the expected chlorine reactivity is low and only small modifications in the parent compound's structure are expected under typical water treatment conditions. To better understand/predict chlorine reactions with micropollutants, the kinetic and mechanistic information on chlorine reactivity available in literature was critically reviewed. For most micropollutants, HOCl is the major reactive chlorine species during chlorination processes. In the case of inorganic compounds, a fast reaction of ammonia, halides (Br(-) and I(-)), SO(3)(2-), CN(-), NO(2)(-), As(III) and Fe(II) with HOCl is reported (10(3)-10(9)M(-1)s(-1)) whereas low chlorine reaction rates with Mn(II) were shown in homogeneous systems. Chlorine reactivity usually results from an initial electrophilic attack of HOCl on inorganic compounds. In the case of organic compounds, second-order rate constants for chlorination vary over 10 orders of magnitude (i.e. <0.1-10(9)M(-1)s(-1)). Oxidation, addition and electrophilic substitution reactions with organic compounds are possible pathways. However, from a kinetic point of view, usually only electrophilic attack is significant. Chlorine reactivity limited to particular sites (mainly amines, reduced sulfur moieties or activated aromatic systems) is commonly observed during chlorination processes and small modifications in the parent compound's structure are expected for the primary attack. Linear structure-activity relationships can be used to make predictions/estimates of the reactivity of functional groups based on structural analogy. Furthermore, comparison of chlorine to ozone reactivity towards aromatic compounds (electrophilic attack) shows a good correlation, with chlorine rate constants being about four orders of magnitude smaller than those for ozone.
TL;DR: A copper-catalyzed arylation reaction is developed that selectively substitutes phenyl electrophiles at the aromatic carbon–hydrogen sites meta to an amido substituent and is applicable to a broad range of aromatic compounds.
Abstract: For over a century, chemical transformations of benzene derivatives have been guided by the high selectivity for electrophilic attack at the ortho/para positions in electron-rich substrates and at the meta position in electron-deficient molecules. We have developed a copper-catalyzed arylation reaction that, in contrast, selectively substitutes phenyl electrophiles at the aromatic carbon-hydrogen sites meta to an amido substituent. This previously elusive class of transformation is applicable to a broad range of aromatic compounds.
TL;DR: A cross-coupling between aryl halides and common arenes mediated by 1,10-phenanthroline as catalyst, in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide as base is described, opening a new window for achieving C–H activation without the need for transition metal catalysts.
Abstract: The direct functionalization of C-H bonds has drawn the attention of chemists for almost a century. C-H activation has mainly been achieved through four metal-mediated pathways: oxidative addition, electrophilic substitution, σ-bond metathesis and metal-associated carbene/nitrene/oxo insertion. However, the identification of methods that do not require transition-metal catalysts is important because methods involving such catalysts are often expensive. Another advantage would be that the requirement to remove metallic impurities from products could be avoided, an important issue in the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. Here, we describe the identification of a cross-coupling between aryl iodides/bromides and the C-H bonds of arenes that is mediated solely by the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline as catalyst in the presence of KOt-Bu as a base. This apparently transition-metal-free process provides a new strategy with which to achieve direct C-H functionalization.