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About: Electroplating is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 18865 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 145334 citation(s).

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Abstract: It is well known that metallic films deposited electrolytically are in many cases liable to peel off if deposited to any considerable thickness. This is the case with nickel which, when deposited over a certain thickness, will curl up into beautiful close rolls, especially if it does not adhere very tightly to the body on which it is deposited. For example, if a piece of glass is silvered by any of the usual silvering solutions, and then nickel is deposited on the silver, it is found that the nickel and silver peel off the glass in close tight rolls almost at once. In ‘Practical Electro-Chemistry,' by Bertram Blount, reference is made on pp. 114 and 272 to the tendency of nickel to peel off, and it is stated that it “will peel—spontaneously and without assignable cause” (p. 272), but that a thick coating can be obtained by keeping the solution at between 50° and 90°C. The late Earl of Rosse tried, about 1865, to make flat mirrors by coating glass with silver chemically, and then electroplating with copper; but he found that, owing to the “contraction” of the copper film, it became detached from the glass. I have had the' same experience in protecting silver 61ms in searchlight reflectors by a film of electro-deposited copper, it being found that if the film of copper is more than 0.01 mm. thick peeling is apt to take place.

4,253 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Feb 1996-Langmuir
Abstract: The use of optical measurements to monitor electrochemical changes on the surface of nanosized metal particles is discussed within the Drude model. The absorption spectrum of a metal sol in water is shown to be strongly affected by cathodic or anodic polarization, chemisorption, metal adatom deposition, and alloying. Anion adsorption leads to strong damping of the free electron absorption. Cathodic polarization leads to anion desorption. Underpotential deposition (upd) of electropositive metal layers results in dramatic blue-shifts of the surface plasmon band of the substrate. The deposition of just 0.1 monolayer can be readily detected by eye. In some cases alloying occurs spontaneously during upd. Alloy formation can be ascertained from the optical absorption spectrum in the case of gold deposition onto silver sols. The underpotential deposition of silver adatoms onto palladium leads to the formation of a homogeneous silver shell, but the mean free path is less than predicted, due to lattice strain in t...

3,285 citations

15 May 1997
Abstract: A high conductivity interconnect structure is formed by electroplating or electroless plating of Cu or a Cu-base alloy on a seed layer comprising an alloy of a catalytically active metal, such as Cu, and a refractory metal, such as Ta. The seed layer also functions as a barrier/adhesion layer for the subsequently plated Cu or Cu-base alloy. Another embodiment comprises initially depositing a refractory metal barrier layer before depositing the seed layer.

454 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: 1to form a passivating film that inhibits the metal deposition rate by two orders of magnitude. Subsequent adsorption of short chain disulfide or thiol molecules with a sulfonate-end group~s! leads to the disruption and/or displacement of the passivating surface complex and acceleration of the metal deposition rate. The effect of submonolayer quantities of catalytic SPS is sustained even after extensive metal deposition, indicating that the catalyst largely remains segregated on the growth surface. Multicycle voltammetry reveals a significant potential dependence for SPS adsorption as well as its subsequent deactivation. Catalyst deactivation, or consumption, was examined by monitoring the quenching of the metal deposition rate occurring on SPS-derivatized electrodes in a SPS-free electrolyte. Catalyst consumption is a higher order process in terms of its coverage dependence and a maximum deactivation rate is observed near an overpotential of 20.1 V. Derivatization experiments are shown to be particularly effective in revealing the influence of molecular functionality in additive electroplating. Specifically, the charged sulfonate end group is shown to be central to effective catalysis. In the last three years, a curvature-enhanced accelerator coverage ~CEAC! mechanism has been shown to quantitatively describe superconformal film growth which is responsible for ‘‘bottom-up superfilling’’ of submicrometer features in damascene processing. 1-3 The mechanism has also been shown to apply to silver electrodeposition 4 as well as copper chemical vapor deposition. 5 A key characteristic of superfilling electrolytes, disclosed to date, is the competition between inhibitors and accelerators for electrode surface sites. According to the CEAC model, a thiol or disulfide accelerator, or catalyst, displaces an inhibiting halide-cuprouspolyether species from the interface and remains segregated at the surface during metal deposition. 1-3,6,7 A key consequence of these two stipulations is the possibility that local area change associated with metal deposition on a nonplanar surface may give rise to changes in the local catalyst coverage, ~e.g., increases on concave sections and decreases on convex segments! and thereby superconformal film growth. This process is particularly important for surface profiles with dimensions in the submicrometer regime and naturally provides an explanation for the beneficial effects induced by certain additives known as ‘‘brighteners.’’ 1,6 In this first of a series of papers, a more complete assessment of the electrochemical response of planar electrodes in copper superfilling electrolytes is presented. A typical electrolyte contains a dilute, i.e., micromolar, concentration of accelerator in the presence of an inhibitor concentration that is usually an order of magnitude greater. This configuration gives rise to hysteretic voltammetric curves, rising chronoamperometric transients, and decreasing chronopotentiometric traces, all of which reflect the competitive adsorption dynamics occurring between the two species. An underdeveloped aspect of this system is a quantitative description of the mass balance of the additives during plating. Of specific interest is the partitioning of the catalyst between segregation to the free surface vs. deactivation by either incorporation into the growing deposit or desorption into the electrolyte. Examination of the metal deposition kinetics on catalyst-derivatized electrodes in a catalyst-free electrolyte is shown to be particularly helpful in quantifying the deactivation process. These experiments also provide an avenue for exploring the impact of various additive functional groups on the metal deposition kinetics. Experimental

288 citations

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