Topic

# Elementary particle

About: Elementary particle is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11399 publications have been published within this topic receiving 326177 citations. The topic is also known as: fundamental particle & non-composite quantum particle.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics, using data from previous editions.

Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions., plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors., probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, V-ud & V-us, V-cb & V-ub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology.

12,798 citations

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TL;DR: The review as discussed by the authors summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 Japers, including the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons and baryons.

Abstract: The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 Japers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters.

5,459 citations

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Tohoku University

^{1}, University of Zurich^{2}, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory^{3}, Stanford University^{4}, College of William & Mary^{5}, University of Urbino^{6}, CERN^{7}, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics^{8}, University of California, Irvine^{9}, Cornell University^{10}, Argonne National Laboratory^{11}, ETH Zurich^{12}, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research^{13}, Hillsdale College^{14}, Spanish National Research Council^{15}, Ohio State University^{16}, University of Notre Dame^{17}, Kent State University^{18}, University of California, San Diego^{19}, University of California, Berkeley^{20}, University of Minnesota^{21}, University of Alabama^{22}, University of Helsinki^{23}, Los Alamos National Laboratory^{24}, California Institute of Technology^{25}, George Washington University^{26}, Syracuse University^{27}, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory^{28}, Oklahoma State University–Stillwater^{29}, University of Washington^{30}, Max Planck Society^{31}, Boston University^{32}, University of California, Los Angeles^{33}, Royal Holloway, University of London^{34}, Université Paris-Saclay^{35}, University of Pennsylvania^{36}, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign^{37}, University of Bristol^{38}, University of Tokyo^{39}, University of Delaware^{40}, Carnegie Mellon University^{41}, University of California, Santa Cruz^{42}, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology^{43}, Heidelberg University^{44}, Florida State University^{45}, University of Mainz^{46}, University of Edinburgh^{47}, Brookhaven National Laboratory^{48}, Durham University^{49}, University of Lausanne^{50}, Massachusetts Institute of Technology^{51}, University of Southampton^{52}, Nagoya University^{53}, University of Oxford^{54}, Northwestern University^{55}, University of British Columbia^{56}, Columbia University^{57}, Lund University^{58}, University of Sheffield^{59}, University of California, Santa Barbara^{60}, Iowa State University^{61}, University of Alberta^{62}, University of Cambridge^{63}TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, and features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations.

Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. This edition features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations. For the first time we cover searches for evidence of extra dimensions (both in the particle listings and in a new review). Another new review is on Grand Unified Theories. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

5,143 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons are examined under the hypothesis that the weak interactions are mediated by vector bosons, and it is shown that the simplest partially-symmetric model reproducing the observed electromagnetic and weak interactions requires the existence of at least four vector-boson fields (including the photon).

Abstract: Weak and electromagnetic interactions of the leptons are examined under the hypothesis that the weak interactions are mediated by vector bosons. With only an isotopic triplet of leptons coupled to a triplet of vector bosons (two charged decay-intermediaries and the photon) the theory possesses no partial-symmetries. Such symmetries may be established if additional vector bosons or additional leptons are introduced. Since the latter possibility yields a theory disagreeing with experiment, the simplest partially-symmetric model reproducing the observed electromagnetic and weak interactions of leptons requires the existence of at least four vector-boson fields (including the photon). Corresponding partially-conserved quantities suggest leptonic analogues to the conserved quantities associated with strong interactions: strangeness and isobaric spin.

4,387 citations

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[...]

TL;DR: In this article, it was pointed out that a global U(1) symmetry, introduced in order to preserve the parity and time-reversal invariance of strong interactions despite the effects of instantons, would lead to a neutral pseudoscalar boson, the "axion", with mass roughly of order 100 keV to 1 MeV.

Abstract: It is pointed out that a global U(1) symmetry, that has been introduced in order to preserve the parity and time-reversal invariance of strong interactions despite the effects of instantons, would lead to a neutral pseudoscalar boson, the "axion," with mass roughly of order 100 keV to 1 MeV. Experimental implications are discussed.

4,138 citations