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Topic

Elementary particle

About: Elementary particle is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11399 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 326177 citation(s). The topic is also known as: fundamental particle & non-composite quantum particle.


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Journal ArticleDOI
Claude Amsler1, Michael Doser2, Mario Antonelli, D. M. Asner3  +173 moreInstitutions (86)
TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics, using data from previous editions.
Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions., plus 2778 new measurements from 645 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors., probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on CKM quark-mixing matrix, V-ud & V-us, V-cb & V-ub, top quark, muon anomalous magnetic moment, extra dimensions, particle detectors, cosmic background radiation, dark matter, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology.

11,048 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 Japers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, Astrophysical Constants and Cosmological Parameters.

5,413 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
K. Hagiwara, Ken Ichi Hikasa1, Koji Nakamura, Masaharu Tanabashi1, M. Aguilar-Benitez, Claude Amsler2, R. M. Barnett3, Patricia R. Burchat4, C. D. Carone5, C. Caso, G. Conforto6, Olav Dahl3, Michael Doser7, Semen Eidelman8, Jonathan L. Feng9, L. K. Gibbons10, Maury Goodman11, Christoph Grab12, D. E. Groom3, Atul Gurtu13, Atul Gurtu7, K. G. Hayes14, J. J. Herna`ndez-Rey15, K. Honscheid16, Christopher Kolda17, Michelangelo L. Mangano7, David Manley18, Aneesh V. Manohar19, John March-Russell7, Alberto Masoni, Ramon Miquel3, Klaus Mönig, Hitoshi Murayama3, Hitoshi Murayama20, S. Sánchez Navas12, Keith A. Olive21, Luc Pape7, C. Patrignani, A. Piepke22, Matts Roos23, John Terning24, Nils A. Tornqvist23, T. G. Trippe3, Petr Vogel25, C. G. Wohl3, Ron L. Workman26, W-M. Yao3, B. Armstrong3, P. S. Gee3, K. S. Lugovsky, S. B. Lugovsky, V. S. Lugovsky, Marina Artuso27, D. Asner28, K. S. Babu29, E. L. Barberio7, Marco Battaglia7, H. Bichsel30, O. Biebel31, Philippe Bloch7, Robert N. Cahn3, Ariella Cattai7, R. S. Chivukula32, R. Cousins33, G. A. Cowan34, Thibault Damour35, K. Desler, R. J. Donahue3, D. A. Edwards, Victor Daniel Elvira, Jens Erler36, V. V. Ezhela, A Fassò7, W. Fetscher12, Brian D. Fields37, B. Foster38, Daniel Froidevaux7, Masataka Fukugita39, Thomas K. Gaisser40, L. Garren, H.-J. Gerber12, Frederick J. Gilman41, Howard E. Haber42, C. A. Hagmann28, J.L. Hewett4, Ian Hinchliffe3, Craig J. Hogan30, G. Höhler43, P. Igo-Kemenes44, John David Jackson3, Kurtis F Johnson45, D. Karlen, B. Kayser, S. R. Klein3, Konrad Kleinknecht46, I.G. Knowles47, P. Kreitz4, Yu V. Kuyanov, R. Landua7, Paul Langacker36, L. S. Littenberg48, Alan D. Martin49, Tatsuya Nakada50, Tatsuya Nakada7, Meenakshi Narain32, Paolo Nason, John A. Peacock47, Helen R. Quinn4, Stuart Raby16, Georg G. Raffelt31, E. A. Razuvaev, B. Renk46, L. Rolandi7, Michael T Ronan3, L.J. Rosenberg51, Christopher T. Sachrajda52, A. I. Sanda53, Subir Sarkar54, Michael Schmitt55, O. Schneider50, Douglas Scott56, W. G. Seligman57, Michael H. Shaevitz57, Torbjörn Sjöstrand58, George F. Smoot3, Stefan M Spanier4, H. Spieler3, N. J. C. Spooner59, Mark Srednicki60, A. Stahl, Todor Stanev40, M. Suzuki3, N. P. Tkachenko, German Valencia61, K. van Bibber28, Manuella Vincter62, D. R. Ward63, Bryan R. Webber63, M R Whalley49, Lincoln Wolfenstein41, J. Womersley, C. L. Woody48, O. V. Zenin 
Tohoku University1, University of Zurich2, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory3, Stanford University4, College of William & Mary5, University of Urbino6, CERN7, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics8, University of California, Irvine9, Cornell University10, Argonne National Laboratory11, ETH Zurich12, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research13, Hillsdale College14, Spanish National Research Council15, Ohio State University16, University of Notre Dame17, Kent State University18, University of California, San Diego19, University of California, Berkeley20, University of Minnesota21, University of Alabama22, University of Helsinki23, Los Alamos National Laboratory24, California Institute of Technology25, George Washington University26, Syracuse University27, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory28, Oklahoma State University–Stillwater29, University of Washington30, Max Planck Society31, Boston University32, University of California, Los Angeles33, Royal Holloway, University of London34, Université Paris-Saclay35, University of Pennsylvania36, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign37, University of Bristol38, University of Tokyo39, University of Delaware40, Carnegie Mellon University41, University of California, Santa Cruz42, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology43, Heidelberg University44, Florida State University45, University of Mainz46, University of Edinburgh47, Brookhaven National Laboratory48, Durham University49, University of Lausanne50, Massachusetts Institute of Technology51, University of Southampton52, Nagoya University53, University of Oxford54, Northwestern University55, University of British Columbia56, Columbia University57, Lund University58, University of Sheffield59, University of California, Santa Barbara60, Iowa State University61, University of Alberta62, University of Cambridge63
TL;DR: This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, and features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations.
Abstract: This biennial Review summarizes much of Particle Physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2205 new measurements from 667 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. This edition features expanded coverage of CP violation in B mesons and of neutrino oscillations. For the first time we cover searches for evidence of extra dimensions (both in the particle listings and in a new review). Another new review is on Grand Unified Theories. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

5,118 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Weak and electromagnetic interactions of the leptons are examined under the hypothesis that the weak interactions are mediated by vector bosons. With only an isotopic triplet of leptons coupled to a triplet of vector bosons (two charged decay-intermediaries and the photon) the theory possesses no partial-symmetries. Such symmetries may be established if additional vector bosons or additional leptons are introduced. Since the latter possibility yields a theory disagreeing with experiment, the simplest partially-symmetric model reproducing the observed electromagnetic and weak interactions of leptons requires the existence of at least four vector-boson fields (including the photon). Corresponding partially-conserved quantities suggest leptonic analogues to the conserved quantities associated with strong interactions: strangeness and isobaric spin.

4,202 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Continuing the program developed in a previous paper, a "superconductive" solution describing the proton-neutron doublet is obtained from a nonlinear spinor field Lagrangian. We find the pions of finite mass as nucleon-antinucleon bound states by introducing a small bare mass into the Lagrangian which otherwise possesses a certain type of the ${\ensuremath{\gamma}}_{5}$ invariance. In addition, heavier mesons and two-nucleon bound states are obtained in the same approximation. On the basis of numerical mass relations, it is suggested that the bare nucleon field is similar to the electron-neutrino field, and further speculations are made concerning the complete description of the baryons and leptons.

3,684 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202178
2020116
2019114
2018126
2017189
2016249