About: Encoding (memory) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7547 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 120214 citation(s). The topic is also known as: memory encoding & encoding of memories.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Apr 1995-Optics Letters
TL;DR: A new optical encoding method of images for security applications is proposed and it is shown that the encoding converts the input signal to stationary white noise and that the reconstruction method is robust.
Abstract: We propose a new optical encoding method of images for security applications. The encoded image is obtained by random-phase encoding in both the input and the Fourier planes. We analyze the statistical properties of this technique and show that the encoding converts the input signal to stationary white noise and that the reconstruction method is robust.
01 Apr 2013-Physiological Reviews
TL;DR: This review aims to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings.
Abstract: Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.
TL;DR: This work provides electrophysiological evidence for lateralized activity in humans that reflects the encoding and maintenance of items in visual memory and provides a strong neurophysiological predictor of an individual's capacity, allowing a direct relationship between neural activity and memory capacity.
Abstract: Contrary to our rich phenomenological visual experience, our visual short-term memory system can maintain representations of only three to four objects at any given moment. For over a century, the capacity of visual memory has been shown to vary substantially across individuals, ranging from 1.5 to about 5 objects. Although numerous studies have recently begun to characterize the neural substrates of visual memory processes, a neurophysiological index of storage capacity limitations has not yet been established. Here, we provide electrophysiological evidence for lateralized activity in humans that reflects the encoding and maintenance of items in visual memory. The amplitude of this activity is strongly modulated by the number of objects being held in the memory at the time, but approaches a limit asymptotically for arrays that meet or exceed storage capacity. Indeed, the precise limit is determined by each individual's memory capacity, such that the activity from low-capacity individuals reaches this plateau much sooner than that from high-capacity individuals. Consequently, this measure provides a strong neurophysiological predictor of an individual's capacity, allowing the demonstration of a direct relationship between neural activity and memory capacity.
TL;DR: Practical work in cognitive science and empirical work in memory and language comprehension are reviewed that suggest that it may be possible to investigate connections between topics as disparate as infantile amnesia and mental-model theory.
Abstract: Let's start from scratch in thinking about what memory is for, and consequently, how it works. Suppose that memory and conceptualization work in the service of perception and action. In this case, conceptualization is the encoding of patterns of possible physical interaction with a three-dimensional world. These patterns are constrained by the structure of the environment, the structure of our bodies, and memory. Thus, how we perceive and conceive of the environment is determined by the types of bodies we have. Such a memory would not have associations. Instead, how concepts become related (and what it means to be related) is determined by how separate patterns of actions can be combined given the constraints of our bodies. I call this combination "mesh." To avoid hallucination, conceptualization would normally be driven by the environment, and patterns of action from memory would play a supporting, but automatic, role. A significant human skill is learning to suppress the overriding contribution of the environment to conceptualization, thereby allowing memory to guide conceptualization. The effort used in suppressing input from the environment pays off by allowing prediction, recollective memory, and language comprehension. I review theoretical work in cognitive science and empirical work in memory and language comprehension that suggest that it may be possible to investigate connections between topics as disparate as infantile amnesia and mental-model theory.
•12 Oct 2011
TL;DR: Working C code for a fractal encoding/decoding scheme capable of encoding images in a few seconds, decoding at arbitrary resolution, and achieving high compression rations is proposed.
Abstract: From the contents: Recent theoretical results on fast encoding and decoding methods, various schemes for encoding images using fractal methods, and theoretical models for the encoding/decoding process.- Working C code for a fractal encoding/decoding scheme capable of encoding images in a few seconds, decoding at arbitrary resolution, and achieving high compression rations.- Experimental results from various schemes showing their capability and forming the basis for a sophisticated implementation.- A list of previously unresearched projects containing both new ideas and inhancements to the schemes discussed in the book.- A comparison of the fractal schemes in the book with JPEG, commercial fractal software, and wavelet methods.
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