About: Endocytic cycle is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7854 publications have been published within this topic receiving 587864 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Cellular organelles in the exocytic and endocytic pathways have a distinctive spatial distribution and communicate through an elaborate system of vesiculo-tubular transport.
Abstract: Cellular organelles in the exocytic and endocytic pathways have a distinctive spatial distribution and communicate through an elaborate system of vesiculo-tubular transport. Rab proteins and their effectors coordinate consecutive stages of transport, such as vesicle formation, vesicle and organelle motility, and tethering of vesicles to their target compartment. These molecules are highly compartmentalized in organelle membranes, making them excellent candidates for determining transport specificity and organelle identity.
TL;DR: What is known about mammalian endocytic mechanisms is reviewed, with focus on the cellular proteins that control these events, and the functional relevance of distinctendocytic pathways is discussed.
Abstract: Endocytic mechanisms control the lipid and protein composition of the plasma membrane, thereby regulating how cells interact with their environments. Here, we review what is known about mammalian endocytic mechanisms, with focus on the cellular proteins that control these events. We discuss the well-studied clathrin-mediated endocytic mechanisms and dissect endocytic pathways that proceed independently of clathrin. These clathrin-independent pathways include the CLIC/GEEC endocytic pathway, arf6-dependent endocytosis, flotillin-dependent endocytosis, macropinocytosis, circular doral ruffles, phagocytosis, and trans-endocytosis. We also critically review the role of caveolae and caveolin1 in endocytosis. We highlight the roles of lipids, membrane curvature-modulating proteins, small G proteins, actin, and dynamin in endocytic pathways. We discuss the functional relevance of distinct endocytic pathways and emphasize the importance of studying these pathways to understand human disease processes.
TL;DR: The capacity of DCs to capture and process antigen could be modulated by exogenous stimuli was investigated and it was found that DCs respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha, CD40 ligand, IL-1, and lipopolysaccharide with a coordinate series of changes that include downregulation of macropinocytosis and Fc receptors, disappearance of the class II compartment, and upregulation of adhesion and costimulatory molecules.
Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T cells. To identify the mechanisms responsible for efficient antigen capture, we studied the endocytic capacity of DCs using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, horseradish peroxidase, and lucifer yellow. We found that DCs use two distinct mechanisms for antigen capture. The first is a high level of fluid phase uptake via macropinocytosis. In contrast to what has been found with other cell types, macropinocytosis in DCs is constitutive and allows continuous internalization of large volumes of fluid. The second mechanism of capture is mediated via the mannose receptor (MR), which is expressed at high levels on DCs. At low ligand concentrations, the MR can deliver a large number of ligands to the cell in successive rounds. Thus, while macropinocytosis endows DCs with a high capacity, nonsaturable mechanism for capture of any soluble antigen, the MR gives an extra capacity for antigen capture with some degree of selectivity for non-self molecules. In addition to their high endocytic capacity, DCs from GM-CSF + IL-4-dependent cultures are characterized by the presence of a large intracellular compartment that contains high levels of class II molecules, cathepsin D, and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1, and is rapidly accessible to endocytic markers. We investigated whether the capacity of DCs to capture and process antigen could be modulated by exogenous stimuli. We found that DCs respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha, CD40 ligand, IL-1, and lipopolysaccharide with a coordinate series of changes that include downregulation of macropinocytosis and Fc receptors, disappearance of the class II compartment, and upregulation of adhesion and costimulatory molecules. These changes occur within 1-2 d and are irreversible, since neither pinocytosis nor the class II compartment are recovered when the maturation-inducing stimulus is removed. The specificity of the MR and the capacity to respond to inflammatory stimuli maximize the capacity of DCs to present infectious non-self antigens to T cells.
TL;DR: The main determinants required for Tat translocation within this sequence are delineated by synthesizing several peptides covering the Tat domain from residues 37 to 60 and the domain extending from amino acid 37 to 47, which corresponds to the α-helix structure, is not required for cellular uptake and for nuclear translocation.
TL;DR: Caveolae constitute an entire membrane system with multiple functions essential for the cell and are capable of importing molecules and delivering them to specific locations within the cell, exporting molecules to extracellular space, and compartmentalizing a variety of signaling activities.
Abstract: The cell biology of caveolae is a rapidly growing area of biomedical research. Caveolae are known primarily for their ability to transport molecules across endothelial cells, but modern cellular techniques have dramatically extended our view of caveolae. They form a unique endocytic and exocytic compartment at the surface of most cells and are capable of importing molecules and delivering them to specific locations within the cell, exporting molecules to extracellular space, and compartmentalizing a variety of signaling activities. They are not simply an endocytic device with a peculiar membrane shape but constitute an entire membrane system with multiple functions essential for the cell. Specific diseases attack this system: Pathogens have been identified that use it as a means of gaining entrance to the cell. Trying to understand the full range of functions of caveolae challenges our basic instincts about the cell.
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