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Endosperm

About: Endosperm is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8774 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 282070 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jan 2000-Science
TL;DR: Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve the nutritional value of rice, and a combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.
Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.

2,011 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Jul 1964-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that the endosperms of maize seeds homozygous for the opaque-2 mutant gene have a higher lysine content than normal kernels and the synthesis of proteins with a greater content of basic amino acids in the acid-soluble fraction of the mutant endosperm.
Abstract: Preliminary tests have shown that the endosperms of maize seeds homozygous for the opaque-2 mutant gene have a higher lysine content than normal kernels. As a critical test, a backcross progeny was divided into opaque-2 and normal kernels, the endosperms separated, and the amino acids determined. The opaque-2 endosperms had a different amino acid pattern and 69 percent more lysine than the normal seeds. The major reason for these changes is the synthesis of proteins with a greater content of basic amino acids in the acid-soluble fraction of the mutant endosperm. This is accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of zein to glutelin.

988 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review focuses mainly on eudicot seeds, and on the interactions between abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellins (GA), ethylene, brassinosteroids, auxin and cytokinins in regulating the interconnected molecular processes that control dormancy release and germination.
Abstract: This review focuses mainly on eudicot seeds, and on the interactions between abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellins (GA), ethylene, brassinosteroids (BR), auxin and cytokinins in regulating the interconnected molecular processes that control dormancy release and germination. Signal transduction pathways, mediated by environmental and hormonal signals, regulate gene expression in seeds. Seed dormancy release and germination of species with coat dormancy is determined by the balance of forces between the growth potential of the embryo and the constraint exerted by the covering layers, e.g. testa and endosperm. Recent progress in the field of seed biology has been greatly aided by molecular approaches utilizing mutant and transgenic seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and the Solanaceae model systems, tomato and tobacco, which are altered in hormone biology. ABA is a positive regulator of dormancy induction and most likely also maintenance, while it is a negative regulator of germination. GA releases dormancy, promotes germination and counteracts ABA effects. Ethylene and BR promote seed germination and also counteract ABA effects. We present an integrated view of the molecular genetics, physiology and biochemistry used to unravel how hormones control seed dormancy release and germination.

892 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Progress in identifying the enzymatic machinery required for the synthesis of amylopectin, the glucose polymer responsible for the insoluble nature of starch, is assessed.
Abstract: Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. We depend upon starch for our nutrition, exploit its unique properties in industry, and use it as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Here, we review recent advances in research in three key areas. First, we assess progress in identifying the enzymatic machinery required for the synthesis of amylopectin, the glucose polymer responsible for the insoluble nature of starch. Second, we discuss the pathways of starch degradation, focusing on the emerging role of transient glucan phosphorylation in plastids as a mechanism for solubilizing the surface of the starch granule. We contrast this pathway in leaves with the degradation of starch in the endosperm of germinated cereal seeds. Third, we consider the evolution of starch biosynthesis in plants from the ancestral ability to make glycogen. Finally, we discuss how this basic knowledge has been utilized to improve and diversify starch crops.

750 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The rice seed-storage protein glutelin promoter, GluB-1, was used to drive expression of the soybean gene specifically in developing, self-pollinated seeds (T1 seeds) of transgenic plants, as confirmed by reverse transcription PCR analysis.
Abstract: To improve the iron content of rice, we have transferred the entire coding sequence of the soybean ferritin gene into Oryza sativa (L. cv. Kita-ake) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The rice seed-storage protein glutelin promoter, GluB-1, was used to drive expression of the soybean gene specifically in developing, self-pollinated seeds (T1 seeds) of transgenic plants, as confirmed by reverse transcription PCR analysis. Stable accumulation of the ferritin subunit in the rice seed was demonstrated by western blot analysis, and its specific accumulation in the endosperm by immunologic tissue printing. The iron content of T1 seeds was as much as threefold greater than that of their untransformed counterparts.

704 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
2021219
2020218
2019234
2018224
2017202