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Energy consumption

About: Energy consumption is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 101929 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1609977 citation(s).

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Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of time, but then becoming suddenly active when something is detected. These characteristics of sensor networks and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 802.11 in almost every way: energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important. S-MAC uses three novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration. To reduce energy consumption in listening to an idle channel, nodes periodically sleep. Neighboring nodes form virtual clusters to auto-synchronize on sleep schedules. Inspired by PAMAS, S-MAC also sets the radio to sleep during transmissions of other nodes. Unlike PAMAS, it only uses in-channel signaling. Finally, S-MAC applies message passing to reduce contention latency for sensor-network applications that require store-and-forward processing as data move through the network. We evaluate our implementation of S-MAC over a sample sensor node, the Mote, developed at University of California, Berkeley. The experiment results show that, on a source node, an 802.11-like MAC consumes 2–6 times more energy than S-MAC for traffic load with messages sent every 1–10s.

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5,311 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/INFCOM.2002.1019408
Wei Ye1, John Heidemann1, Deborah Estrin2Institutions (2)
07 Nov 2002-
Abstract: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of time, but then becoming suddenly active when something is detected These characteristics of sensor networks and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 80211 in almost every way: energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important S-MAC uses three novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration To reduce energy consumption in listening to an idle channel, nodes periodically sleep Neighboring nodes form virtual clusters to auto-synchronize on sleep schedules Inspired by PAMAS, S-MAC also sets the radio to sleep during transmissions of other nodes Unlike PAMAS, it only uses in-channel signaling Finally, S-MAC applies message passing to reduce contention latency for sensor-network applications that require store-and-forward processing as data move through the network We evaluate our implementation of S-MAC over a sample sensor node, the Mote, developed at University of California, Berkeley The experiment results show that, on a source node, an 80211-like MAC consumes 2-6 times more energy than S-MAC for traffic load with messages sent every 1-10 s

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5,094 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2007.03.007
Abstract: The rapidly growing world energy use has already raised concerns over supply difficulties, exhaustion of energy resources and heavy environmental impacts (ozone layer depletion, global warming, climate change, etc.). The global contribution from buildings towards energy consumption, both residential and commercial, has steadily increased reaching figures between 20% and 40% in developed countries, and has exceeded the other major sectors: industrial and transportation. Growth in population, increasing demand for building services and comfort levels, together with the rise in time spent inside buildings, assure the upward trend in energy demand will continue in the future. For this reason, energy efficiency in buildings is today a prime objective for energy policy at regional, national and international levels. Among building services, the growth in HVAC systems energy use is particularly significant (50% of building consumption and 20% of total consumption in the USA). This paper analyses available information concerning energy consumption in buildings, and particularly related to HVAC systems. Many questions arise: Is the necessary information available? Which are the main building types? What end uses should be considered in the breakdown? Comparisons between different countries are presented specially for commercial buildings. The case of offices is analysed in deeper detail.

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  • Table 1. Global energy indexes evolution between 1973 and 2004. Source: International Energy Agency (IEA).
    Table 1. Global energy indexes evolution between 1973 and 2004. Source: International Energy Agency (IEA).
  • Table 7. Energy consumption in offices by end use. Sources: EIA, BRE [12] and IDAE.
    Table 7. Energy consumption in offices by end use. Sources: EIA, BRE [12] and IDAE.
  • Table 4. Energy consumption by end uses in the residential sector. Year 2003. Source: EIA and IDAE [8] and BRE.
    Table 4. Energy consumption by end uses in the residential sector. Year 2003. Source: EIA and IDAE [8] and BRE.
  • Table 5. Energy use in the commercial sector by building type. Year 2003. Sources: EIA, IDAE and BRE.
    Table 5. Energy use in the commercial sector by building type. Year 2003. Sources: EIA, IDAE and BRE.
  • Table 3. Weight of buildings energy consumption. Year 2004. Sources: EIA, EuroStat, and BRE.
    Table 3. Weight of buildings energy consumption. Year 2004. Sources: EIA, EuroStat, and BRE.
  • + 2

Topics: Energy consumption (64%), Zero-energy building (63%), Energy policy (62%) ...read more

4,538 Citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/1031495.1031508
03 Nov 2004-
Abstract: We propose B-MAC, a carrier sense media access protocol for wireless sensor networks that provides a flexible interface to obtain ultra low power operation, effective collision avoidance, and high channel utilization. To achieve low power operation, B-MAC employs an adaptive preamble sampling scheme to reduce duty cycle and minimize idle listening. B-MAC supports on-the-fly reconfiguration and provides bidirectional interfaces for system services to optimize performance, whether it be for throughput, latency, or power conservation. We build an analytical model of a class of sensor network applications. We use the model to show the effect of changing B-MAC's parameters and predict the behavior of sensor network applications. By comparing B-MAC to conventional 802.11-inspired protocols, specifically SMAC, we develop an experimental characterization of B-MAC over a wide range of network conditions. We show that B-MAC's flexibility results in better packet delivery rates, throughput, latency, and energy consumption than S-MAC. By deploying a real world monitoring application with multihop networking, we validate our protocol design and model. Our results illustrate the need for flexible protocols to effectively realize energy efficient sensor network applications.

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3,557 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TNET.2004.828953
Wei Ye1, John Heidemann1, Deborah Estrin2Institutions (2)
Abstract: This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with nodes remaining largely inactive for long time, but becoming suddenly active when something is detected. These characteristics of sensor networks and applications motivate a MAC that is different from traditional wireless MACs such as IEEE 802.11 in several ways: energy conservation and self-configuration are primary goals, while per-node fairness and latency are less important. S-MAC uses a few novel techniques to reduce energy consumption and support self-configuration. It enables low-duty-cycle operation in a multihop network. Nodes form virtual clusters based on common sleep schedules to reduce control overhead and enable traffic-adaptive wake-up. S-MAC uses in-channel signaling to avoid overhearing unnecessary traffic. Finally, S-MAC applies message passing to reduce contention latency for applications that require in-network data processing. The paper presents measurement results of S-MAC performance on a sample sensor node, the UC Berkeley Mote, and reveals fundamental tradeoffs on energy, latency and throughput. Results show that S-MAC obtains significant energy savings compared with an 802.11-like MAC without sleeping.

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2,816 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022217
20216,771
20207,585
20198,141
20187,784
20177,707

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Nadeem Javaid

186 papers, 3.3K citations

Mahmut Kandemir

92 papers, 2.7K citations

Luca Benini

82 papers, 3.9K citations

Muhammad Shahbaz

72 papers, 5.4K citations

Muhammad Imran

49 papers, 642 citations

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