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Energy conversion efficiency

About: Energy conversion efficiency is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26738 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 740636 citation(s). The topic is also known as: energy conversion efficiency.
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Oct 1991-Nature
Abstract: THE large-scale use of photovoltaic devices for electricity generation is prohibitively expensive at present: generation from existing commercial devices costs about ten times more than conventional methods1. Here we describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency. The device is based on a 10-µm-thick, optically transparent film of titanium dioxide particles a few nanometres in size, coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye to sensitize the film for light harvesting. Because of the high surface area of the semiconductor film and the ideal spectral characteristics of the dye, the device harvests a high proportion of the incident solar energy flux (46%) and shows exceptionally high efficiencies for the conversion of incident photons to electrical current (more than 80%). The overall light-to-electric energy conversion yield is 7.1-7.9% in simulated solar light and 12% in diffuse daylight. The large current densities (greater than 12 mA cm-2) and exceptional stability (sustaining at least five million turnovers without decomposition), as well as the low cost, make practical applications feasible.

25,199 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals were found to efficiently sensitize TiO(2) for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells, which exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors.
Abstract: Two organolead halide perovskite nanocrystals, CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbI3, were found to efficiently sensitize TiO2 for visible-light conversion in photoelectrochemical cells. When self-assembled on mesoporous TiO2 films, the nanocrystalline perovskites exhibit strong band-gap absorptions as semiconductors. The CH3NH3PbI3-based photocell with spectral sensitivity of up to 800 nm yielded a solar energy conversion efficiency of 3.8%. The CH3NH3PbBr3-based cell showed a high photovoltage of 0.96 V with an external quantum conversion efficiency of 65%.

13,033 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Nov 2012-Science
TL;DR: A low-cost, solution-processable solar cell, based on a highly crystalline perovskite absorber with intense visible to near-infrared absorptivity, that has a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% in a single-junction device under simulated full sunlight is reported.
Abstract: The energy costs associated with separating tightly bound excitons (photoinduced electron-hole pairs) and extracting free charges from highly disordered low-mobility networks represent fundamental losses for many low-cost photovoltaic technologies. We report a low-cost, solution-processable solar cell, based on a highly crystalline perovskite absorber with intense visible to near-infrared absorptivity, that has a power conversion efficiency of 10.9% in a single-junction device under simulated full sunlight. This "meso-superstructured solar cell" exhibits exceptionally few fundamental energy losses; it can generate open-circuit photovoltages of more than 1.1 volts, despite the relatively narrow absorber band gap of 1.55 electron volts. The functionality arises from the use of mesoporous alumina as an inert scaffold that structures the absorber and forces electrons to reside in and be transported through the perovskite.

7,996 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells.
Abstract: We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells.

5,830 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2014-Science
TL;DR: Perovskite films received a boost in photovoltaic efficiency through controlled formation of charge-generating films and improved current transfer to the electrodes and low-temperature processing steps allowed the use of materials that draw current out of the perovskites layer more efficiently.
Abstract: Advancing perovskite solar cell technologies toward their theoretical power conversion efficiency (PCE) requires delicate control over the carrier dynamics throughout the entire device. By controlling the formation of the perovskite layer and careful choices of other materials, we suppressed carrier recombination in the absorber, facilitated carrier injection into the carrier transport layers, and maintained good carrier extraction at the electrodes. When measured via reverse bias scan, cell PCE is typically boosted to 16.6% on average, with the highest efficiency of ~19.3% in a planar geometry without antireflective coating. The fabrication of our perovskite solar cells was conducted in air and from solution at low temperatures, which should simplify manufacturing of large-area perovskite devices that are inexpensive and perform at high levels.

5,222 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202253
20211,405
20201,617
20191,674
20181,617
20171,626