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Energy harvesting

About: Energy harvesting is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12850 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 282317 citation(s). The topic is also known as: power harvesting & energy scavenging.

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Abstract: This paper reviews the state-of-the art in vibration energy harvesting for wireless, self-powered microsystems. Vibration-powered generators are typically, although not exclusively, inertial spring and mass systems. The characteristic equations for inertial-based generators are presented, along with the specific damping equations that relate to the three main transduction mechanisms employed to extract energy from the system. These transduction mechanisms are: piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Piezoelectric generators employ active materials that generate a charge when mechanically stressed. A comprehensive review of existing piezoelectric generators is presented, including impact coupled, resonant and human-based devices. Electromagnetic generators employ electromagnetic induction arising from the relative motion between a magnetic flux gradient and a conductor. Electromagnetic generators presented in the literature are reviewed including large scale discrete devices and wafer-scale integrated versions. Electrostatic generators utilize the relative movement between electrically isolated charged capacitor plates to generate energy. The work done against the electrostatic force between the plates provides the harvested energy. Electrostatic-based generators are reviewed under the classifications of in-plane overlap varying, in-plane gap closing and out-of-plane gap closing; the Coulomb force parametric generator and electret-based generators are also covered. The coupling factor of each transduction mechanism is discussed and all the devices presented in the literature are summarized in tables classified by transduction type; conclusions are drawn as to the suitability of the various techniques.

2,637 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this paper is not to suggest that the conversion of vibrations is the best or most versatile method to scavenge ambient power, but to study its potential as a viable power source for applications where vibrations are present.
Abstract: Advances in low power VLSI design, along with the potentially low duty cycle of wireless sensor nodes open up the possibility of powering small wireless computing devices from scavenged ambient power. A broad review of potential power scavenging technologies and conventional energy sources is first presented. Low-level vibrations occurring in common household and office environments as a potential power source are studied in depth. The goal of this paper is not to suggest that the conversion of vibrations is the best or most versatile method to scavenge ambient power, but to study its potential as a viable power source for applications where vibrations are present. Different conversion mechanisms are investigated and evaluated leading to specific optimized designs for both capacitive MicroElectroMechancial Systems (MEMS) and piezoelectric converters. Simulations show that the potential power density from piezoelectric conversion is significantly higher. Experiments using an off-the-shelf PZT piezoelectric bimorph verify the accuracy of the models for piezoelectric converters. A power density of 70 @mW/cm^3 has been demonstrated with the PZT bimorph. Simulations show that an optimized design would be capable of 250 @mW/cm^3 from a vibration source with an acceleration amplitude of 2.5 m/s^2 at 120 Hz.

2,536 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Energy harvesting has grown from long-established concepts into devices for powering ubiquitously deployed sensor networks and mobile electronics. Systems can scavenge power from human activity or derive limited energy from ambient heat, light, radio, or vibrations. Ongoing power management developments enable battery-powered electronics to live longer. Such advances include dynamic optimization of voltage and clock rate, hybrid analog-digital designs, and clever wake-up procedures that keep the electronics mostly inactive. Exploiting renewable energy resources in the device's environment, however, offers a power source limited by the device's physical survival rather than an adjunct energy store. Energy harvesting's true legacy dates to the water wheel and windmill, and credible approaches that scavenge energy from waste heat or vibration have been around for many decades. Nonetheless, the field has encountered renewed interest as low-power electronics, wireless standards, and miniaturization conspire to populate the world with sensor networks and mobile devices. This article presents a whirlwind survey through energy harvesting, spanning historic and current developments.

2,389 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The field of power harvesting has experienced significant growth over the past few years due to the ever-increasing desire to produce portable and wireless electronics with extended lifespans. Current portable and wireless devices must be designed to include electrochemical batteries as the power source. The use of batteries can be troublesome due to their limited lifespan, thus necessitating their periodic replacement. In the case of wireless sensors that are to be placed in remote locations, the sensor must be easily accessible or of a disposable nature to allow the device to function over extended periods of time. Energy scavenging devices are designed to capture the ambient energy surrounding the electronics and convert it into usable electrical energy. The concept of power harvesting works towards developing self-powered devices that do not require replaceable power supplies. A number of sources of harvestable ambient energy exist, including waste heat, vibration, electromagnetic waves, wind, flowing water, and solar energy. While each of these sources of energy can be effectively used to power remote sensors, the structural and biological communities have placed an emphasis on scavenging vibrational energy with piezoelectric materials. This article will review recent literature in the field of power harvesting and present the current state of power harvesting in its drive to create completely self-powered devices.

2,223 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents an overview of the RF-EHNs including system architecture, RF energy harvesting techniques, and existing applications, and explores various key design issues according to the network types, i.e., single-hop networks, multiantenna networks, relay networks, and cognitive radio networks.
Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) energy transfer and harvesting techniques have recently become alternative methods to power the next-generation wireless networks As this emerging technology enables proactive energy replenishment of wireless devices, it is advantageous in supporting applications with quality-of-service requirements In this paper, we present a comprehensive literature review on the research progresses in wireless networks with RF energy harvesting capability, which is referred to as RF energy harvesting networks (RF-EHNs) First, we present an overview of the RF-EHNs including system architecture, RF energy harvesting techniques, and existing applications Then, we present the background in circuit design as well as the state-of-the-art circuitry implementations and review the communication protocols specially designed for RF-EHNs We also explore various key design issues in the development of RF-EHNs according to the network types, ie, single-hop networks, multiantenna networks, relay networks, and cognitive radio networks Finally, we envision some open research directions

1,994 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years