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About: Enthalpy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 21390 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 467399 citation(s).

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Abstract: Thermodynamic data for the condensed phases of 78 elements as currently used by SGTE (Scientific Group Thermodata Europe) are tabulated. SGTE is a consortium of seven organisations in Western Europe engaged in the compilation of a comprehensive, self consistent and authoritative thermochemical database for inorganic and metallurgical systems. The data are being published here in the hope that they will become widely adopted within the international community as a sound basis for the critical assessment of thermodynamic data, thereby, perhaps, limiting unnecessary duplication of effort. The data for each phase of each element considered aie presented as expressions showing, as a function of temperature, the variation of (a) G-HSER, the Gibbs energy relative to the enthalpy of the “Standard Element Reference” ie the reference phase for the element at 298.15 K and (b) the difference in Gibbs energy between each phase and this reference phase (ie lattice stability). The variation of the heat capacity of the various phases and the Gibbs energy difference between phases are also shown graphically. For certain elements the thermodynamic data have been assessed as a function of pressure as well as temperature. Where appropriate a temperature— pressure phase diagram is also shown. Throughout this paper the thermodynamic data are expressed in terms of J mol−1. The temperatures of transition between phases have been assessed to be consistent with the 1990 International Temperature Scale (ITS90).

3,775 citations

01 Jan 1995
Abstract: A report about values for the entropy, molar volume, and for the enthalpy and Gibbs energy of formation for the elements and minerals and substances at 298.15 K.

3,459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A consistent set of embedding functions and pair interactions for use with the embedded-atom method [M.S. Daw and M. I. Baskes, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6443 (1984)] have been determined empirically to describe the fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, and Pt as well as alloys containing these metals. The functions are determined empirically by fitting to the sublimation energy, equilibrium lattice constant, elastic constants, and vacancy-formation energies of the pure metals and the heats of solution of the binary alloys. The validity of the functions is tested by computing a wide range of properties: the formation volume and migration energy of vacancies, the formation energy, formation volume, and migration energy of divacancies and self-interstitials, the surface energy and geometries of the low-index surfaces of the pure metals, and the segregation energy of substitutional impurities to (100) surfaces.

3,419 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A revised regular solution-type thermodynamic model for twelve-component silicate liquids in the system SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-H2O is calibrated. The model is referenced to previously published standard state thermodynamic properties and is derived from a set of internally consistent thermodynamic models for solid solutions of the igneous rock forming minerals, including: (Mg,Fe2+,Ca)-olivines, (Na,Mg,Fe2+,Ca)M2 (Mg,Fe2+, Ti, Fe3+, Al)M1 (Fe3+, Al,Si)2TETO6-pyroxenes, (Na,Ca,K)-feldspars, (Mg,Fe2+) (Fe3+, Al, Cr)2O4-(Mg,Fe2+)2 TiO4 spinels and (Fe2+, Mg, Mn2+)TiO3-Fe2O3 rhombohedral oxides. The calibration utilizes over 2,500 experimentally determined compositions of silicate liquids coexisting at known temperatures, pressures and oxygen fugacities with apatite ±feldspar ±leucite ±olivine ±pyroxene ±quartz ±rhombohedral oxides ±spinel ±whitlockite ±water. The model is applicable to natural magmatic compositions (both hydrous and anhydrous), ranging from potash ankaratrites to rhyolites, over the temperature (T) range 900°–1700°C and pressures (P) up to 4 GPa. The model is implemented as a software package (MELTS) which may be used to simulate igneous processes such as (1) equilibrium or fractional crystallization, (2) isothermal, isenthalpic or isochoric assimilation, and (3) degassing of volatiles. Phase equilibria are predicted using the MELTS package by specifying bulk composition of the system and either (1) T and P, (2) enthalpy (H) and P, (3) entropy (S) and P, or (4) T and volume (V). Phase relations in systems open to oxygen are determined by directly specifying the fo2 or the T-P-fo2 (or equivalently H-P-fo2, S-P-fo2, T-V-fo2) evolution path. Calculations are performed by constrained minimization of the appropriate thermodynamic potential. Compositions and proportions of solids and liquids in the equilibrium assemblage are computed.

2,458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Recent advances in theoretical geochemistry permit calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of a wide variety of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions from 1 to 5000 bar and 0 to 1000°C. The SUPCRT92 software package facilitates practical application of these recent theories, equations, and data to define equilibrium constraints on geochemical processes in a wide variety of geologic systems. The SUPCRT92 package is composed of three interactive FORTRAN 77 programs, SUPCRT92, MPRONS92, and CPRONS92, and a sequential-access thermodynamic database, SPRONS92.DAT. The SUPCRT92 program reads or permits user-generation of its two input files, CON and RXN, retrieves data from the direct-access equivalent of SPRONS92.DAT, calculates the standard molal Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and volume of each reaction specified on the RXN file through a range of conditions specified on the CON file, and writes the calculated reaction properties to the output TAB file and, optionally, to PLT files that facilitate their graphical depiction. Calculations can be performed along the liquid side of the H2O vaporization boundary by specifying either temperature (T) or pressure (P), and in the single-phase regions of fluid H2O by specifying either T and P, T and H2O density, T and log K, or P and log K. SPRONS92.DAT, which contains standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar, equation-of-state parameters, heat capacity coefficients, and phase transition data for approximately 500 minerals, gases, and aqueous species, can be augmented or otherwise modified using MPRONS92, and converted to its direct-access equivalent using CPRONS92.

2,140 citations

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