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Entrepreneurship

About: Entrepreneurship is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 71760 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1758844 citation(s).

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Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Scott Shane1, Sankaran Venkataraman2Institutions (2)
Abstract: To date, the phenomenon of entrepreneurship has lacked a conceptual framework. In this note we draw upon previous research conducted in the different social science disciplines and applied fields of business to create a conceptual framework for the field. With this framework we explain a set of empirical phenomena and predict a set of outcomes not explained or predicted by conceptual frameworks already in existence in other fields.

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10,511 citations


Posted Content
Abstract: There are not many books that are genuine classics, and only a handful in business and management whose insights and ideas last for 50 years and more. This book is one of the very few 'must reads' for anybody seriously interested in the role of management within the firm. Originally published in 1959, The Theory of the Growth of the Firm has illuminated and inspired thinking in strategy, entrepreneurship, knowledge creation, and innovation. Edith Penrose's tightly-argued classic laid the foundations for the resource based view of the firm, now the dominant framework in business strategy. She analyses managerial activities and decisions, organizational routines, and also the factors that inevitably limit a firm's growth prospects. For this new anniversary edition, Christos Pitelis has written a new introduction which both tells the story of Penrose's extraordinary life, and provides a balanced assessment of her key ideas and their continuing relevance and freshness.

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7,683 citations


Book
01 Jan 1961-
Abstract: Examines the motivation for achievement as a psychological factor that shapes economic development. Refuting arguments based on race, climate, or population growth, the book instead argues for cultural customs and motivations - especially the motivation for achievement - as the major catalysts of economic growth. Considering the Protestant Reformation, the rise of capitalism, parents' influences on sons, and folklore and children's stories as shaping cultural motivations for achievement, the book hypothesizes that a high level of achievement motivation precedes economic growth. This is supported through qualitative analysis of the achievement motive, as well as of other psychological factors - including entrepreneurial behavior and characteristics, and available sources of achievement in past and present highly achieving societies. It is the achievement motive - and not merely the profit motive or the desire for material gain - that has advanced societies economically. Consequently, individuals are not merely products of their environment, as many social scientists have asserted, but also creators of the environment, as they manipulate it in various ways in the search for achievement. Finally, a plan is hypothesized to accelerate economic growth in developing countries, by encouraging and supplementing their achievement motives through mobilizing the greater achievement resources of developed countries. The conclusion is not just that motivations shape economic progress, but that current influences on future people's motivations and values will determine economic growth in the long run. Thus, it is most beneficial for a society to concentrate its resources on creating an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and a strong ideological base for achievement. (CJC)

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6,677 citations


Posted Content
Abstract: Examines the motivation for achievement as a psychological factor that shapes economic development. Refuting arguments based on race, climate, or population growth, the book instead argues for cultural customs and motivations - especially the motivation for achievement - as the major catalysts of economic growth. Considering the Protestant Reformation, the rise of capitalism, parents' influences on sons, and folklore and children's stories as shaping cultural motivations for achievement, the book hypothesizes that a high level of achievement motivation precedes economic growth. This is supported through qualitative analysis of the achievement motive, as well as of other psychological factors - including entrepreneurial behavior and characteristics, and available sources of achievement in past and present highly achieving societies. It is the achievement motive - and not merely the profit motive or the desire for material gain - that has advanced societies economically. Consequently, individuals are not merely products of their environment, as many social scientists have asserted, but also creators of the environment, as they manipulate it in various ways in the search for achievement. Finally, a plan is hypothesized to accelerate economic growth in developing countries, by encouraging and supplementing their achievement motives through mobilizing the greater achievement resources of developed countries. The conclusion is not just that motivations shape economic progress, but that current influences on future people's motivations and values will determine economic growth in the long run. Thus, it is most beneficial for a society to concentrate its resources on creating an environment conducive to entrepreneurship and a strong ideological base for achievement. (CJC)

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6,613 citations


Posted Content
Israel M. Kirzner1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Kirzner, writing from a neo-Austrian economic perspective that is inherently dynamic with an emphasis on action over time, offers a critique of the prevailing positivistic, value freedom of orthodox microeconomics and price theory, focusing on what he believes is its unrealistic emphasis on static equilibrium analysis. Kirzner criticizes the methodology of Robbinsian equililbrium analysis in which a competitive market is a situation in which buyers and sellers have perfect knowledge and in which decision-making is mechanical and its solutions given. This analysis, according to Kirzner, eliminates all consideration of the competitive process and of entrepreneurship (which is synonymous, for him, with competitive activity); the assumption of perfect knowledge is unrealistic. He offers a full elaboration of the Mises-Hayek view of entrepreneurship and competition as a process based on von Mises' idea of "human action" rather than Marshall's idea of economizing. Kirzner sees the entrepreneur as always alert to information and propelling the system forward by seeking out price discrepancies as opportunities for profit. This process depends not on impulses from technology or genius; rather every market participant is a potential entrepreneur who can exploit a situation, which depends on a lack of perfect knowledge among the market participants. Entrepreneurial activity is always competitive; and competitive activity is always entrepreneurial. Kirzner is thus also a critique of the Schumpeterian view of entrepreneurship as disrupter of equilibrium; rather the entrepreneur removes disequilibrium in a short-run movement to an equilibrium position. A Kirznerian entrepreneur is a decision-maker whose entire role arises from alertness to unnoticed opportunities or knowledge about market data. Within the context of entrepreneurial activity, he offers a neo-Austrian redefinition of the concept of monopoly and competition. Since for Kirzner entrepreneurship involves no element of resource ownership, monopoly is defined as the impact of input ownership on the competitive process, and not the shape of the demand curve facing a firm. A monopoly position can be won by an alert entrepreneur. In the light of his theory of competition, Kirzner provides a new theoretical place for advertising and selling costs. Advertising, which promotes and calls attention to product differentiation, is the "weapon" of competition, which allows competitive-entrepreneurial adjustments in the type of products placed in the market in disequilibrium. Kirzner's revaluation of advertising is thus opposed to the idea of advertising as a social waste. Kirzner also offers a new conception of economic welfare based on the "coordination-of-knowledge-and-actions" instead of the orthodox "allocation of social resources" standard. (TNM)

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5,130 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202279
20214,370
20205,110
20195,202
20184,832
20174,927

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

David B. Audretsch

305 papers, 28K citations

Zoltan J. Acs

227 papers, 18.8K citations

Leo Paul Dana

213 papers, 6.4K citations

Vanessa Ratten

182 papers, 2.5K citations

Roy Thurik

163 papers, 17.2K citations