About: Environmental pollution is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 100432 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1115877 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is suggested that fine-particulate air pollution, or a more complex pollution mixture associated with fine particulate matter, contributes to excess mortality in certain U.S. cities.
Abstract: Background Recent studies have reported associations between particulate air pollution and daily mortality rates. Population-based, cross-sectional studies of metropolitan areas in the United States have also found associations between particulate air pollution and annual mortality rates, but these studies have been criticized, in part because they did not directly control for cigarette smoking and other health risks. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the effects of air pollution on mortality, while controlling for individual risk factors. Survival analysis, including Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling, was conducted with data from a 14-to-16-year mortality follow-up of 8111 adults in six U.S. cities. Results Mortality rates were most strongly associated with cigarette smoking. After adjusting for smoking and other risk factors, we observed statistically significant and robust associations between air pollution and mortality. The adjusted mortality-rate ratio for the most po...
TL;DR: Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects of an increasingly urbanized world.
Abstract: Urban areas are hot spots that drive environmental change at multiple scales. Material demands of production and human consumption alter land use and cover, biodiversity, and hydrosystems locally to regionally, and urban waste discharge affects local to global biogeochemical cycles and climate. For urbanites, however, global environmental changes are swamped by dramatic changes in the local environment. Urban ecology integrates natural and social sciences to study these radically altered local environments and their regional and global effects. Cities themselves present both the problems and solutions to sustainability challenges of an increasingly urbanized world.
01 Jun 1996
TL;DR: The most comprehensive and up-to-date assessment available for scientific understanding of human influences on the past present and future climate is "Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change" as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: This extensive report entitled “Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change” is the most comprehensive and up-to-date assessment available for scientific understanding of human influences on the past present and future climate. Its aim is to provide objective information on which to base global climate change that will ultimately meet the aim of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The report includes an overview of the factors governing climate and climate change and quantification of the sources of globally important greenhouse gases and other pollutants arising from human activities. A review of the chemical and biological processes governing their removal from the atmosphere is presented. Also included is an assessment of recent trends in climate during the industrial era which has witnessed the ever-growing impact of human activities on the global environment. The strengths and weaknesses of various climate mathematical models used by researchers for understanding the past and present climate and for calculating possible future climates are assessed. Furthermore the report discusses research aimed at the detection of human influence on the climate of the last century and presents future change projections in global climate and sea level based on a range of scenarios of future emissions of pollutants due to human activity. Finally a list of research and observational priorities needed to improve scientific understanding in key areas is presented.
01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: Evidence that the various common types of cancer are largely avoidable diseases is reviewed, and it is suggested that, apart from cancer of the respiratory tract, the types of cancers that are currently common are not peculiarly modern diseases and are likely to depend chiefly on some long-established factor.
Abstract: My lecture spanned not only the hour allocated for it in the morning, but also the first half of the round table that afternoon, where it acted as an introduction to the round table discussion that followed. The break between the two sessions was determined only by administrative and not by scientific matters, and so in this published account, the two may be read as a unit.
TL;DR: The number of people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in California seems to have decreased over the same time period, where exposure is determined by the reported time spent with a smoker.
Abstract: Because human activities impact the timing, location, and degree of pollutant exposure, they play a key role in explaining exposure variation. This fact has motivated the collection of activity pattern data for their specific use in exposure assessments. The largest of these recent efforts is the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), a 2-year probability-based telephone survey ( n=9386) of exposure-related human activities in the United States (U.S.) sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary purpose of NHAPS was to provide comprehensive and current exposure information over broad geographical and temporal scales, particularly for use in probabilistic population exposure models. NHAPS was conducted on a virtually daily basis from late September 1992 through September 1994 by the University of Maryland's Survey Research Center using a computer-assisted telephone interview instrument (CATI) to collect 24-h retrospective diaries and answers to a number of personal and exposure-related questions from each respondent. The resulting diary records contain beginning and ending times for each distinct combination of location and activity occurring on the diary day (i.e., each microenvironment). Between 340 and 1713 respondents of all ages were interviewed in each of the 10 EPA regions across the 48 contiguous states. Interviews were completed in 63% of the households contacted. NHAPS respondents reported spending an average of 87% of their time in enclosed buildings and about 6% of their time in enclosed vehicles. These proportions are fairly constant across the various regions of the U.S. and Canada and for the California population between the late 1980s, when the California Air Resources Board (CARB) sponsored a state-wide activity pattern study, and the mid-1990s, when NHAPS was conducted. However, the number of people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in California seems to have decreased over the same time period, where exposure is determined by the reported time spent with a smoker. In both California and the entire nation, the most time spent exposed to ETS was reported to take place in residential locations.
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