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Environmentally friendly

About: Environmentally friendly is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5861 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 56207 citation(s). The topic is also known as: eco-friendly & nature friendly. more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NENERGY.2015.27
Jingbo Zhao1, Yunke Li1, Guofang Yang2, Guofang Yang1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
25 Jan 2016-Nature Energy
Abstract: Organic solar cells have desirable properties, including low cost of materials, high-throughput roll-to-roll production, mechanical flexibility and light weight. However, all top-performance devices are at present processed using halogenated solvents, which are environmentally hazardous and would thus require expensive mitigation to contain the hazards. Attempts to process organic solar cells from non-halogenated solvents lead to inferior performance. Overcoming this hurdle, here we present a hydrocarbon-based processing system that is not only more environmentally friendly but also yields cells with power conversion efficiencies of up to 11.7%. Our processing system incorporates the synergistic effects of a hydrocarbon solvent, a novel additive, a suitable choice of polymer side chain, and strong temperature-dependent aggregation of the donor polymer. Our results not only demonstrate a method of producing active layers of organic solar cells in an environmentally friendly way, but also provide important scientific insights that will facilitate further improvement of the morphology and performance of organic solar cells. The processing of high-performance organic solar cells usually requires environmentally hazardous solvents. Now, hydrocarbon-based processing is shown to achieve relatively high performance in a more environmentally friendly way. more

1,830 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PORGCOAT.2003.06.001
Abstract: The imminent ban of environmentally harmful tributyltin (TBT)-based paint products has been the cause of a major change in the antifouling paint industry. In the past decade, several tin-free products have reached the commercial market, and claimed their effectiveness as regards the prevention of marine biofouling on ships in an environmentally friendly manner. The main objective of this review is to describe these products in as much detail as possible based on the knowledge available in the open literature. This knowledge has been supplemented by means of performance data provided, upon request, by some of the paint-producing companies. An exhaustive review of the historical development of antifouling systems and a detailed characterisation of sea water are also included. The need for studies on the behaviour of chemically active paints under different sea water conditions is emphasised. In addition, the most common booster biocides used to replace TBT-containing compounds are listed and described. It must be stressed that there is still a lack of knowledge of their potential environmental side effects. The current interest in providing innovative antifouling technologies based on an improved understanding of the biological principles of the biofouling process is also considered in this review. From the analysis of the factors affecting the biofouling process, the interference with the settlement and attachment mechanisms is the most promising environmentally benign option. This can be accomplished in two main ways: imitation of the natural antifouling processes and modification of the characteristics of the substrate. The former mostly focuses on the study of the large amount of secondary metabolites secreted by many different marine organisms to control the fouling on their surfaces. The many obstacles that need to be overcome for the success of this research are analysed. The potential development of broad-spectrum efficient coatings based on natural antifoulants is far from commercialisation. However, exploitation of a weakening of biofouling adhesion by means of the non-stick and fouling-release concepts is at a rather advanced stage of development. The main advantages and drawbacks of these systems are presented along with a brief introduction to their scientific basis. Finally, other alternatives, which may eventually give rise to an efficient and environmentally benign antifouling system, are outlined. more

Topics: Environmentally friendly (50%)

1,626 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ADMA.200902812
Bo Hu1, Kan Wang1, Liheng Wu1, Shu-Hong Yu2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
16 Feb 2010-Advanced Materials
Abstract: Energy shortage, environmental crisis, and developing customer demands have driven people to find facile, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and nontoxic routes to produce novel functional materials that can be commercialized in the near future. Amongst various techniques, the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process of biomass (either of isolated carbohydrates or crude plants) is a promising candidate for the synthesis of novel carbon-based materials with a wide variety of potential applications. In this Review, we will discuss various synthetic routes towards such novel carbon-based materials or composites via the HTC process of biomass. Furthermore, factors that influence the carbonization process will be analyzed and the special chemical/physical properties of the final products will be discussed. Despite the lack of a clear mechanism, these novel carbonaceous materials have already shown promising applications in many fields such as carbon fixation, water purification, fuel cell catalysis, energy storage, CO(2) sequestration, bioimaging, drug delivery, and gas sensors. Some of the most promising examples will also be discussed here, demonstrating that the HTC process can rationally design a rich family of carbonaceous and hybrid functional carbon materials with important applications in a sustainable fashion. more

Topics: Hydrothermal carbonization (56%), Carbonization (52%), Biomass (51%) more

1,287 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/ANIE.200503779
27 Oct 2006-Angewandte Chemie
Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is widely used in almost all industrial areas, particularly in the chemical industry and environmental protection. The only degradation product of its use is water, and thus it has played a large role in environmentally friendly methods in the chemical industry. Hydrogen peroxide is produced on an industrial scale by the anthraquinone oxidation (AO) process. However, this process can hardly be considered a green method. It involves the sequential hydrogenation and oxidation of an alkylanthraquinone precursor dissolved in a mixture of organic solvents followed by liquid–liquid extraction to recover H2O2. The AO process is a multistep method that requires significant energy input and generates waste, which has a negative effect on its sustainability and production costs. The transport, storage, and handling of bulk H2O2 involve hazards and escalating expenses. Thus, novel, cleaner methods for the production of H2O2 are being explored. The direct synthesis of H2O2 from O2 and H2 using a variety of catalysts, and the factors influencing the formation and decomposition of H2O2 are examined in detail in this Review. more

Topics: Anthraquinone process (68%), Hydrogen peroxide (54%), Environmentally friendly (51%) more

1,267 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR010334M
A. P. Wight1, Mark E. Davis1Institutions (1)
31 Aug 2002-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Solid catalysts provide numerous opportunities for recovering and recycling catalysts from reaction environments. These features can lead to improved processing steps, better process economics, and environmentally friendly industrial manufacturing. Thus, the motivating factors for creating recoverable catalysts are large. more

Topics: Environmentally friendly (54%)

1,128 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din

10 papers, 173 citations

Rafael Martínez-Palou

4 papers, 146 citations

Herbert Birkhofer

4 papers, 168 citations

James H. Clark

4 papers, 135 citations

Shari Dunn-Norman

4 papers, 22 citations

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