About: EPB41 is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 503 publications have been published within this topic receiving 29493 citations. The topic is also known as: erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 & 4.1R.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This review deals with the molecular physiology of spectrin, ankyrin, which links spectrin to the anion exchanger, and two spectrin-associated proteins that promote spectrin interactions with actin: adducin and protein 4.1.
Abstract: The spectrin-based membrane skeleton of the humble mammalian erythrocyte has provided biologists with a set of interacting proteins with diverse roles in organization and survival of cells in metazoan organisms. This review deals with the molecular physiology of spectrin, ankyrin, which links spectrin to the anion exchanger, and two spectrin-associated proteins that promote spectrin interactions with actin: adducin and protein 4.1. The lack of essential functions for these proteins in generic cells grown in culture and the absence of their genes in the yeast genome have, until recently, limited advances in understanding their roles outside of erythrocytes. However, completion of the genomes of simple metazoans and application of homologous recombination in mice now are providing the first glimpses of the full scope of physiological roles for spectrin, ankyrin, and their associated proteins. These functions now include targeting of ion channels and cell adhesion molecules to specialized compartments within the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle and the nervous system, mechanical stabilization at the tissue level based on transcellular protein assemblies, participation in epithelial morphogenesis, and orientation of mitotic spindles in asymmetric cell divisions. These studies, in addition to stretching the erythrocyte paradigm beyond recognition, also are revealing novel cellular pathways essential for metazoan life. Examples are ankyrin-dependent targeting of proteins to excitable membrane domains in the plasma membrane and the Ca(2+) homeostasis compartment of the endoplasmic reticulum. Exciting questions for the future relate to the molecular basis for these pathways and their roles in a clinical context, either as the basis for disease or more positively as therapeutic targets.
TL;DR: The discoveries are reviewed that elucidate how the cytoskeleton of the human erythrocyte membrane is linked to the membrane and make it possible to visualize the molecular interactions among the cytOSkeletal components.
Abstract: The discoveries are reviewed that elucidate how the cytoskeleton of the human erythrocyte membrane is linked to the membrane and make it possible to visualize the molecular interactions among the cytoskeletal components. These discoveries are the result of a coordinated structural and biochemical approach that has revealed a surprisingly complex set of specific interactions whose existence emphasizes the fundamental continuity between the erythrocyte membrane and the erythrocyte cytoskeleton.
TL;DR: Molecules of human erythrocyte spectrin have been examined by electron microscopy after low-angle shadowing and the molecular shape of spectrin is quite distinct from that of myosin, to which it has often been likened.
Abstract: Molecules of human erythrocyte spectrin have been examined by electron microscopy after low-angle shadowing. Spectrin heterodimers and tetramers were first purified and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation under conditions which minimize proteolysis and aggregation. The heterodimers and tetramere were separated for low-angle shadowing by gel filtration in ammonium acetate buffer at physiological ionic strength, in which they showed sedimentation coefficients of 8.9 S and 12.5 S, respectively, similar to those values reported for heterodimers and tetramers in non-volatile buffers. The ammonium acetate buffer promoted the dissociation of spectrin tetramers into heterodimers under conditions in which tetramers in NaCl or KCl buffers are stable. When visualized by low-angle unidirectional and rotary shadowing, spectrin heterodimers appeared as long flexible molecules with a mean shadowed length of 97 nm. Each heterodimer, composed of the two polypeptide chains, band 1 (240,000 Mr) and band 2 (220,000 Mr), often appeared as two separate strands which lay partially separated from one another or coiled round each other in a loose double helix. The association between these polypeptides appears to be weak, except at both ends of the molecule where there are sites of strong binding. Tetramers are formed by the end-to-end association of two spectrin heterodimer molecules without measurable overlap, and have a mean shadowed length of 194 nm. This association to form tetramers probably involves head-to-head binding of the heterodimers, since the higher oligomers to be expected from a head-to-tail binding mode are not observed. The molecular shape of spectrin is quite distinct from that of myosin, to which it has often been likened.
TL;DR: The results suggest that most of the human erythrocyte spectrin molecule is comprised of homologous segments with a 106 amino acid length per segment, and that spectrin is not related to any other proteins whose sequence was known.
Abstract: Spectrin is an αβ heterodimeric protein (molecular weight (Mr) = 460,000) which is a major component of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton1–8. The membrane skeleton also includes actin (band 5) and is attached to the membrane via non-covalent associations with two linking proteins9–12. Recently we have reported the amino acid sequence of a peptide of molecular weight 80,000 which comprises the NH2-terminal one-third of the α subunit13,14. This α-subunit peptide contains multiple homologous non-identical sequences with a periodicity of 106 amino acids and an approximate molecular weight of 12,000. It was also established that spectrin is not related to any other proteins whose sequence was known. We now report additional amino acid sequence of peptides representative of other domains of both spectrin subunits. The results suggest that most of the human erythrocyte spectrin molecule is comprised of homologous segments with a 106 amino acid (Mr 12,000) length per segment. Each homologous 106-amino acid segment may be folded into a triple helical structure with a short non-helical region connecting adjacent units.
TL;DR: It is concluded that a fraction of band 3 is attached to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton through association with ankyrin, which in turn is bound to spectrin.
Abstract: Ankyrin, the membrane attachment protein for human erythrocyte spectrin, is tightly linked in a 1:1 molar ratio with band 3 in detergent extracts of spectrin-depleted membranes. Ankyrin-linked band 3, which represents 10--15% of the total band 3, spans the membrane, and is nearly identical to the major band 3 by peptide analysis. Spectrin binds to solubilised ankyrin-linked band 3, but not to free band 3. A portion of band 3 remains firmly associated with detergent-extracted cytoskeletal proteins. It is concluded that a fraction of band 3 is attached to the erythrocyte cytoskeleton through association with ankyrin, which in turn is bound to spectrin.
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