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Epitope

About: Epitope is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 58736 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2183945 citation(s). The topic is also known as: antigenic epitope & epitopes.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.02.058
16 Apr 2020-Cell
Abstract: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1/S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.

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Topics: Ectodomain (56%), Viral entry (55%), Epitope (53%) ...read more

4,968 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.78.6.3824
Abstract: A method is presented for locating protein antigenic determinants by analyzing amino acid sequences in order to find the point of greatest local hydrophilicity. This is accomplished by assigning each amino acid a numerical value (hydrophilicity value) and then repetitively averaging these values along the peptide chain. The point of highest local average hydrophilicity is invariably located in, or immediately adjacent to, an antigenic determinant. It was found that the prediction success rate depended on averaging group length, with hexapeptide averages yielding optimal results. The method was developed using 12 proteins for which extensive immunochemical analysis has been carried out and subsequently was used to predict antigenic determinants for the following proteins: hepatitis B surface antigen, influenza hemagglutinins, fowl plague virus hemagglutinin, human histocompatibility antigen HLA-B7, human interferons, Escherichia coli and cholera enterotoxins, ragweed allergens Ra3 and Ra5, and streptococcal M protein. The hepatitis B surface antigen sequence was synthesized by chemical means and was shown to have antigenic activity by radioimmunoassay.

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Topics: Peptide sequence (54%), Epitope (53%), Hemagglutinin (influenza) (52%) ...read more

3,708 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/31405
18 Jun 1998-Nature
Abstract: The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells requires the sequential interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, with the CD4 glycoprotein and a chemokine receptor on the cell surface. These interactions initiate a fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. Although gp120 can elicit virus-neutralizing antibodies, HIV eludes the immune system. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure at 2.5 A resolution of an HIV-1 gp120 core complexed with a two-domain fragment of human CD4 and an antigen-binding fragment of a neutralizing antibody that blocks chemokine-receptor binding. The structure reveals a cavity-laden CD4-gp120 interface, a conserved binding site for the chemokine receptor, evidence for a conformational change upon CD4 binding, the nature of a CD4-induced antibody epitope, and specific mechanisms for immune evasion. Our results provide a framework for understanding the complex biology of HIV entry into cells and should guide efforts to intervene.

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Topics: Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (69%), Chemokine receptor binding (64%), V3 loop (63%) ...read more

2,952 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1696028
Jamie K. Scott1, George P. Smith1Institutions (1)
27 Jul 1990-Science
Abstract: Tens of millions of short peptides can be easily surveyed for tight binding to an antibody, receptor or other binding protein using an "epitope library." The library is a vast mixture of filamentous phage clones, each displaying one peptide sequence on the virion surface. The survey is accomplished by using the binding protein to affinity-purify phage that display tight-binding peptides and propagating the purified phage in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequences of the peptides displayed on the phage are then determined by sequencing the corresponding coding region in the viral DNA's. Potential applications of the epitope library include investigation of the specificity of antibodies and discovery of mimetic drug candidates.

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Topics: Phage display (69%), Phagemid (67%), Linear epitope (64%) ...read more

2,452 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70224-2
01 Dec 2008-Lancet Neurology
Abstract: Summary Background A severe form of encephalitis associated with antibodies against NR1–NR2 heteromers of the NMDA receptor was recently identified. We aimed to analyse the clinical and immunological features of patients with the disorder and examine the effects of antibodies against NMDA receptors in neuronal cultures. Methods We describe the clinical characteristics of 100 patients with encephalitis and NR1–NR2 antibodies. HEK293 cells ectopically expressing single or assembled NR1–NR2 subunits were used to determine the epitope targeted by the antibodies. Antibody titres were measured with ELISA. The effect of antibodies on neuronal cultures was determined by quantitative analysis of NMDA-receptor clusters. Findings Median age of patients was 23 years (range 5–76 years); 91 were women. All patients presented with psychiatric symptoms or memory problems; 76 had seizures, 88 unresponsiveness (decreased conciousness), 86 dyskinesias, 69 autonomic instability, and 66 hypoventilation. 58 (59%) of 98 patients for whom results of oncological assessments were available had tumours, most commonly ovarian teratoma. Patients who received early tumour treatment (usually with immunotherapy) had better outcome (p=0·004) and fewer neurological relapses (p=0·009) than the rest of the patients. 75 patients recovered or had mild deficits and 25 had severe deficits or died. Improvement was associated with a decrease of serum antibody titres. The main epitope targeted by the antibodies is in the extracellular N-terminal domain of the NR1 subunit. Patients' antibodies decreased the numbers of cell-surface NMDA receptors and NMDA-receptor clusters in postsynaptic dendrites, an effect that could be reversed by antibody removal. Interpretation A well-defined set of clinical characteristics are associated with anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis. The pathogenesis of the disorder seems to be mediated by antibodies. Funding National Institutes for Health, University of Pennsylvania Institute for Translational Medicine, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Foederer Foundation of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

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2,320 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202211
20211,830
20201,975
20191,429
20181,403
20171,458

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Alessandro Sette

397 papers, 34.5K citations

John Sidney

207 papers, 15.3K citations

Dennis R. Burton

165 papers, 22K citations

Bruce D. Walker

128 papers, 15.7K citations

Bjoern Peters

124 papers, 10.2K citations

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