scispace - formally typeset



About: Epoxy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 93117 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1122352 citation(s). The topic is also known as: epoxy resin & epoxy glue.

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A low-viscosity embedding medium based on ERL-4206 is recommended for use in electron microscopy and has a long pot life of several days and infiltrates readily because of its low viscosity.
Abstract: A low-viscosity embedding medium based on ERL-4206 is recommended for use in electron microscopy. The composition is: ERL-4206 (vinyl cyclohexene dioxide) 10 g, D.E.R. 736 (diglycidyl ether of polypropylene glycol) 6 g, NSA (nonenyl succinic anhydride) 26 g, and S-1 (dimethylaminoethanol or DMAE) 0.4 g. The medium is easily and rapidly prepared by dispensing the components, in turn by weight, into a single flask. The relatively low viscosity of the medium (60 cP) permits rapid mixing by shaking and swirling. The medium is infiltrated into specimens after the use of any one of several dehydrating fluids, such as ethanol, acetone, dioxan, hexylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene oxide, and tert.-butyl alcohol. It is compatible with each of these in all proportions. After infiltration the castings are polymerized at 70°C in 8 hours. Longer curing does not adversely affect the physical properties of the castings. Curing time can be reduced by increasing the temperature or the accelerator, S-1, or both; and the hardness of the castings is controlled by changes in the D.E.R. 736 flexibilizer. The medium has a long pot life of several days and infiltrates readily because of its low viscosity. The castings have good trimming and sectioning qualities. The embedding matrix of the sections is very resistant to oxidation by KMnO 4 and Ba(MnO 4 ) 2 , compared with resins containing NADIC methyl anhydride. Sections are tough under the electron beam and may be used without a supporting membrane on the grids. The background plastic in the sections shows no perceptible substructure at magnifications commonly used for biological materials. The medium has been used successfully with a wide range of specimens, including endosperms with a high lipid content, tissues with hard, lignified cell walls, and highly vacuolated parenchymatous tissues of ripe fruits.

12,782 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Epoxy embedding methods of Glauert and Kushida have been modified so as to yield rapid, reproducible, and convenientembedding methods for electron microscopy.
Abstract: Epoxy embedding methods of Glauert and Kushida have been modified so as to yield rapid, reproducible, and convenient embedding methods for electron microscopy. The sections are robust and tissue damage is less than with methacrylate embedding.

9,712 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: An overview of polymer–clay hybrid nanocomposites is provided with emphasis placed on the use of alkylammonium exchanged smectite clays as the reinforcement phase in selected polymer matrices. A few weight percent loading of organoclay in nylon 6 boosts the heat distortion temperature by 80°C, making possible structural applications under conditions where the pristine polymer would normally fail. A similar loading of clay nanolayers in elastomeric epoxy and polyurethane matrices dramatically improves both the toughness and the tensile properties of these thermoset systems. Glassy epoxy nanocomposites exhibit substantial improvement in yield strength and modulus under compressive stress–strain conditions. The latest development in polypropylene hybrids have yielded nanocomposites with improved storage moduli. Polyimide hybrids in thin-film form display a 10-fold decrease in permeability toward water vapor at 2 wt.% clay loading. In situ and melt intercalation processing methods are effective in producing reinforced polystyrene hybrids. Nitrile rubber hybrids show improved storage moduli and reduced permeabilities even toward gases as small as hydrogen. Poly(e-caprolactone)–clay nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization of e-caprolactone in organoclay galleries show a substantial reduction in water adsorption. Polysiloxane nanocomposites produced from poly(dimethylsiloxane) and organoclay mixtures have improved in tensile properties, thermal stability and resistance to swelling solvents. Organoclay-poly(l-lactide) composite film was obtained by solvent casting technique. Clay nanolayers dispersed in liquid crystals act as structure directors and form hybrids composites that can be switched from being highly opaque to highly transparent by applying an electric field of short duration.

2,332 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Dec 2009-ACS Nano
TL;DR: Graphene platelets significantly out-perform carbon nanotube additives in terms of mechanical properties enhancement, and may be related to their high specific surface area, enhanced nanofiller-matrix adhesion/interlocking arising from their wrinkled (rough) surface, as well as the two-dimensional geometry of graphene platelets.
Abstract: In this study, the mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites with graphene platelets, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and multi-walled carbon nanotube additives were compared at a nanofiller weight fraction of 0.1 ± 0.002%. The mechanical properties measured were the Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, and the material’s resistance to fatigue crack propagation. The results indicate that graphene platelets significantly out-perform carbon nanotube additives. The Young’s modulus of the graphene nanocomposite was ∼31% greater than the pristine epoxy as compared to ∼3% increase for single-walled carbon nanotubes. The tensile strength of the baseline epoxy was enhanced by ∼40% with graphene platelets compared to ∼14% improvement for multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The mode I fracture toughness of the nanocomposite with graphene platelets showed ∼53% increase over the epoxy compared to ∼20% improvement for multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The fatigue resistance resu...

2,031 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The mechanical behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotube/epoxy composites was studied in both tension and compression. It was found that the compression modulus is higher than the tensile modulus, indicating that load transfer to the nanotubes in the composite is much higher in compression. In addition, it was found that the Raman peak position, indicating the strain in the carbon bonds under loading, shifts significantly under compression but not in tension. It is proposed that during load transfer to multiwalled nanotubes, only the outer layers are stressed in tension whereas all the layers respond in compression.

1,557 citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)

71.3K papers, 1.9M citations

88% related

131.4K papers, 2.6M citations

88% related
Ultimate tensile strength

129.2K papers, 2.1M citations

87% related

147.9K papers, 2.7M citations

85% related

213.4K papers, 3.6M citations

82% related
No. of papers in the topic in previous years