About: Epsilon antitoxin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 24 publications have been published within this topic receiving 424 citations. The topic is also known as: Epsilon_antitox & IPR015090.
TL;DR: No immunological basis for the reported differences in vaccine efficacy between sheep and goats was observed in this trial, and one vaccine regime resulted in low titres on two occasions.
Abstract: A vaccination trial involving 72 goats was designed to compare the epsilon antitoxin titres and local reactions at the injection sites, of two commercial enterotoxemia vaccines. Three dosage regimens were used for each vaccine (12 goats per group). Although no significant differences were noted in humoral immune response between the two vaccines (P = 0.05), one vaccine regime resulted in low titres (P = 0.05) on two occasions. Local tissue reactions at injection sites persisted for six months in 53% of the goats regardless of vaccine used or dosage administered. No immunological basis for the reported differences in vaccine efficacy between sheep and goats was observed in this trial.
TL;DR: CELISA was specific, rapid, reproducible and simple to perform and offered an alternative to the TN test that reduced the requirement for experimental animals in the potency testing of clostridial vaccines.
Abstract: A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CELISA) has been developed, standardized and compared with the toxin neutralization (TN) test performed in mice for the measurement of antibody responses in rabbits vaccinated with clostridial vaccines. In CELISA, sera were tested at a single dilution for their ability to compete with the reaction between a monoclonal antibody, which neutralizes epsilon toxin, and epsilon toxoid coated on to a solid phase. The results of the two tests correlated well. CELISA was specific, rapid, reproducible and simple to perform and offered an alternative to the TN test that reduced the requirement for experimental animals in the potency testing of clostridial vaccines.
TL;DR: It is concluded that colostrum from cows vaccinated with sheep clostridial antigens can be fed to protect lambs passively and produce sufficient antitoxin to protect up to slaughter at 24 weeks.
Abstract: Two Friesian cows were used to attempt to produce colostrum containing a high concentration of clostridial antibodies which could be fed to newborn lambs in order to passively transfer immunity to diseases caused by clostridia. One cow was given a commercial multicomponent clostridial sheep vaccine in two successive pregnancies and the second cow in one pregnancy. The first cow produced a low concentration of epsilon antitoxin (Clostridium perfringens, type D) in its blood and colostrum after the first course of three injections of vaccine. A higher concentration was produced by cow 2 after a course of six injections and by cow 1 after a further course of four injections in its next pregnancy. Two hundred ml of colostrum from cow 1 (after the second course of vaccine) was given to 12 newborn colostrum-deprived lambs. All showed a high concentration of antitoxin 48 hours later. The lambs were actively immunised by injections of the same clostridial vaccine at three and nine weeks or six and 12 weeks old and all produced sufficient antitoxin to protect up to slaughter at 24 weeks. It is concluded that colostrum from cows vaccinated with sheep clostridial antigens can be fed to protect lambs passively.
TL;DR: No negative effects were noted on the development of an initial active immunity or an existing active immunity against Clostridium perfringens type D when they were passively immunized with partially purified immunoglobulin.
Abstract: Lambs in different stages of development of active immunity against Clostridium perfringens type D were treated with partially purified immunoglobulin in an attempt to superimpose a passive immunity on an existing or developing active immunity. Three different studies were undertaken to determine the impact of partial purified immunoglobulins on these vaccinated animals. In 2 of the 3 studies, active immunity was induced by administering the normal routine enterotoxaemia vaccinations and allowing the basic immunity to become established, for a period ranging from 2 weeks for the animals in study 1 and 4 months for those in study 2, before passive immunization with the partially purified immunoglobulins took place. An increase in the epsilon antibody titre occurred in each of the 2 studies after the animals were passively immunized with immunoglobulin, though this increase was not statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). In the 3rd study, when the animals were given the initial vaccination of the Onderstepoort enterotoxaemia oil adjuvant vaccine together with the immunoglobulin, an immediate increase in the epsilon antitoxin titre occurred that was statistically significant (P less than 0.05) 2-14 days after administration. No negative effects were noted on the development of an initial active immunity or an existing active immunity against Clostridium perfringens type D when they were passively immunized with partially purified immunoglobulin.
TL;DR: This work targets the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria.
Abstract: Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the e2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI) site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the e2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay.