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Equity theory

About: Equity theory is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1127 publications have been published within this topic receiving 68553 citations.


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Book ChapterDOI
J. Stacy Adams1
TL;DR: The concept of relative deprivation and relative gratification as discussed by the authors are two major concepts relating to the perception of justice and injustice in social exchanges, and both of them can be used to describe the conditions that lead men to feel that their relations with others are just.
Abstract: Publisher Summary The process of exchange is almost continual in human interactions, and appears to have characteristics peculiar to itself, and to generate affect, motivation, and behavior that cannot be predicted unless exchange processes are understood. This chapter describes two major concepts relating to the perception of justice and injustice; the concept of relative deprivation and the complementary concept of relative gratification. All dissatisfaction and low morale are related to a person's suffering injustice in social exchanges. However, a significant portion of cases can be usefully explained by invoking injustice as an explanatory concept. In the theory of inequity, both the antecedents and consequences of perceived injustice have been stated in terms that permit quite specific predictions to be made about the behavior of persons entering social exchanges. Relative deprivation and distributive justice, as theoretical concepts, specify some of the conditions that arouse perceptions of injustice and complementarily, the conditions that lead men to feel that their relations with others are just. The need for much additional research notwithstanding, the theoretical analyses that have been made of injustice in social exchanges should result not only in a better general understanding of the phenomenon, but should lead to a degree of social control not previously possible. The experience of injustice need not be an accepted fact of life.

9,692 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the relationship between perceptions of fairness and organizational citizenship behaviors in a sample drawn from two firms in the midwestern United States and found support for four hypotheses, including support for a relationship between procedural justice and four of five citizenship dimensions.
Abstract: This study examined the relationship between perceptions of fairness and organizational citizenship (extrarole) behaviors in a sample drawn from two firms in the midwestern United States. A theoretical basis for a relationship between fairness and citizenship was drawn from equity theory and other theories of social exchange. Structural equation analysis with LISREL7 found support for four hypotheses, including support for a relationship between perceptions of procedural justice and four of five citizenship dimensions.

3,249 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A historical overview of the field of organizational justice can be found in this article, with a focus on research and theory in the distributive justice tradition as well as the burgeoning topic of procedural justice.

3,138 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1980
TL;DR: The distribution of rewards and resources is a universal phenomenon that occurs in social systems of all sizes, from small groups to whole societies (Parsons, 1951; Parsons, Shils, & Olds, 1951) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The distribution of rewards and resources is a universal phenomenon that occurs in social systems of all sizes, from small groups to whole societies (Parsons, 1951; Parsons, Shils, & Olds, 1951). All groups, organizations, and societies deal with the question of allocating rewards, punishments, and resources. The manner in which a social system deals with these issues has great impact on its effectiveness and on the satisfaction of its members. For these reasons, it is not surprising that social scientists from many disciplines—political scientists, economists, sociologists, and psychologists—have been concerned with the problem of allocation (e.g., Jones & Kaufman, 1974; Leventhal, 1976a; Pondy, 1970).

2,418 citations

01 Sep 1976
TL;DR: Leventhal and Leventhal as mentioned in this paper discussed what should be done with equity theory in social relations and proposed a new approach to the study of fairness in social relationships, based on social exchange theory.
Abstract: AUTHOR Leventhal, Gerald S TITLE What Should Be Done with Equity Theory? New Approaches to the Study of Fairness in Social Relationships SPONS AGENCY National Science Foundation, Washington, DC PUB DATE Sep 76 GRANT GS-3171 NOTE 52p;,To appear as a chapter in Gezgen, KO, Ed, And Others, "Social Exchange Theory," John Wiley, 1977 AVAILABLE FROM Dr Gerald S Leventhal, Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (free)

2,140 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202314
202234
202124
202036
201925
201825