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# Equivalent circuit

About: Equivalent circuit is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 34990 publications have been published within this topic receiving 473794 citations.

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31 Jul 1997

TL;DR: Converters in Equilibrium, Steady-State Equivalent Circuit Modeling, Losses, and Efficiency, and Power and Harmonics in Nonsinusoidal Systems.

Abstract: Preface. 1. Introduction. I: Converters in Equilibrium. 2. Principles of Steady State Converter Analysis. 3. Steady-State Equivalent Circuit Modeling, Losses, and Efficiency. 4. Switch Realization. 5. The Discontinuous Conduction Mode. 6. Converter Circuits. II: Converter Dynamics and Control. 7. AC Equivalent Circuit Modeling. 8. Converter Transfer Functions. 9. Controller Design. 10. Input Filter Design. 11. AC and DC Equivalent Circuit Modeling of the Discontinuous Conduction Mode. 12. Current Programmed Control. III: Magnetics. 13. Basic Magnetics Theory. 14. Inductor Design. 15. Transformer Design. IV: Modern Rectifiers and Power System Harmonics. 16. Power and Harmonics in Nonsinusoidal Systems. 17. Line-Commutated Rectifiers. 18. Pulse-Width Modulated Rectifiers. V: Resonant Converters. 19. Resonant Conversion. 20. Soft Switching. Appendices: A. RMS Values of Commonly-Observed Converter Waveforms. B. Simulation of Converters. C. Middlebrook's Extra Element Theorem. D. Magnetics Design Tables. Index.

6,136 citations

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04 Apr 2005

Abstract: Preface. Preface to the First Edition. Contributors. Contributors to the First Edition. Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Impedance Spectroscopy (J.Ross Macdonald and William B. Johnson). 1.1. Background, Basic Definitions, and History. 1.1.1 The Importance of Interfaces. 1.1.2 The Basic Impedance Spectroscopy Experiment. 1.1.3 Response to a Small-Signal Stimulus in the Frequency Domain. 1.1.4 Impedance-Related Functions. 1.1.5 Early History. 1.2. Advantages and Limitations. 1.2.1 Differences Between Solid State and Aqueous Electrochemistry. 1.3. Elementary Analysis of Impedance Spectra. 1.3.1 Physical Models for Equivalent Circuit Elements. 1.3.2 Simple RC Circuits. 1.3.3 Analysis of Single Impedance Arcs. 1.4. Selected Applications of IS. Chapter 2. Theory (Ian D. Raistrick, Donald R. Franceschetti, and J. Ross Macdonald). 2.1. The Electrical Analogs of Physical and Chemical Processes. 2.1.1 Introduction. 2.1.2 The Electrical Properties of Bulk Homogeneous Phases. 2.1.2.1 Introduction. 2.1.2.2 Dielectric Relaxation in Materials with a Single Time Constant. 2.1.2.3 Distributions of Relaxation Times. 2.1.2.4 Conductivity and Diffusion in Electrolytes. 2.1.2.5 Conductivity and Diffusion-a Statistical Description. 2.1.2.6 Migration in the Absence of Concentration Gradients. 2.1.2.7 Transport in Disordered Media. 2.1.3 Mass and Charge Transport in the Presence of Concentration Gradients. 2.1.3.1 Diffusion. 2.1.3.2 Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors. 2.1.3.3 Concentration Polarization. 2.1.4 Interfaces and Boundary Conditions. 2.1.4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Interfaces. 2.1.4.2 Polarizable Electrodes. 2.1.4.3 Adsorption at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface. 2.1.4.4 Charge Transfer at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface. 2.1.5 Grain Boundary Effects. 2.1.6 Current Distribution, Porous and Rough Electrodes- the Effect of Geometry. 2.1.6.1 Current Distribution Problems. 2.1.6.2 Rough and Porous Electrodes. 2.2. Physical and Electrochemical Models. 2.2.1 The Modeling of Electrochemical Systems. 2.2.2 Equivalent Circuits. 2.2.2.1 Unification of Immitance Responses. 2.2.2.2 Distributed Circuit Elements. 2.2.2.3 Ambiguous Circuits. 2.2.3 Modeling Results. 2.2.3.1 Introduction. 2.2.3.2 Supported Situations. 2.2.3.3 Unsupported Situations: Theoretical Models. 2.2.3.4 Unsupported Situations: Equivalent Network Models. 2.2.3.5 Unsupported Situations: Empirical and Semiempirical Models. Chapter 3. Measuring Techniques and Data Analysis. 3.1. Impedance Measurement Techniques (Michael C. H. McKubre and Digby D. Macdonald). 3.1.1 Introduction. 3.1.2 Frequency Domain Methods. 3.1.2.1 Audio Frequency Bridges. 3.1.2.2 Transformer Ratio Arm Bridges. 3.1.2.3 Berberian-Cole Bridge. 3.1.2.4 Considerations of Potentiostatic Control. 3.1.2.5 Oscilloscopic Methods for Direct Measurement. 3.1.2.6 Phase-Sensitive Detection for Direct Measurement. 3.1.2.7 Automated Frequency Response Analysis. 3.1.2.8 Automated Impedance Analyzers. 3.1.2.9 The Use of Kramers-Kronig Transforms. 3.1.2.10 Spectrum Analyzers. 3.1.3 Time Domain Methods. 3.1.3.1 Introduction. 3.1.3.2 Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion. 3.1.3.3 Computer Interfacing. 3.1.3.4 Digital Signal Processing. 3.1.4 Conclusions. 3.2. Commercially Available Impedance Measurement Systems (Brian Sayers). 3.2.1 Electrochemical Impedance Measurement Systems. 3.2.1.1 System Configuration. 3.2.1.2 Why Use a Potentiostat? 3.2.1.3 Measurements Using 2, 3 or 4-Terminal Techniques. 3.2.1.4 Measurement Resolution and Accuracy. 3.2.1.5 Single Sine and FFT Measurement Techniques. 3.2.1.6 Multielectrode Techniques. 3.2.1.7 Effects of Connections and Input Impedance. 3.2.1.8 Verification of Measurement Performance. 3.2.1.9 Floating Measurement Techniques. 3.2.1.10 Multichannel Techniques. 3.2.2 Materials Impedance Measurement Systems. 3.2.2.1 System Configuration. 3.2.2.2 Measurement of Low Impedance Materials. 3.2.2.3 Measurement of High Impedance Materials. 3.2.2.4 Reference Techniques. 3.2.2.5 Normalization Techniques. 3.2.2.6 High Voltage Measurement Techniques. 3.2.2.7 Temperature Control. 3.2.2.8 Sample Holder Considerations. 3.3. Data Analysis (J. Ross Macdonald). 3.3.1 Data Presentation and Adjustment. 3.3.1.1 Previous Approaches. 3.3.1.2 Three-Dimensional Perspective Plotting. 3.3.1.3 Treatment of Anomalies. 3.3.2 Data Analysis Methods. 3.3.2.1 Simple Methods. 3.3.2.2 Complex Nonlinear Least Squares. 3.3.2.3 Weighting. 3.3.2.4 Which Impedance-Related Function to Fit? 3.3.2.5 The Question of "What to Fit" Revisited. 3.3.2.6 Deconvolution Approaches. 3.3.2.7 Examples of CNLS Fitting. 3.3.2.8 Summary and Simple Characterization Example. Chapter 4. Applications of Impedance Spectroscopy. 4.1. Characterization of Materials (N. Bonanos, B. C. H. Steele, and E. P. Butler). 4.1.1 Microstructural Models for Impedance Spectra of Materials. 4.1.1.1 Introduction. 4.1.1.2 Layer Models. 4.1.1.3 Effective Medium Models. 4.1.1.4 Modeling of Composite Electrodes. 4.1.2 Experimental Techniques. 4.1.2.1 Introduction. 4.1.2.2 Measurement Systems. 4.1.2.3 Sample Preparation-Electrodes. 4.1.2.4 Problems Associated With the Measurement of Electrode Properties. 4.1.3 Interpretation of the Impedance Spectra of Ionic Conductors and Interfaces. 4.1.3.1 Introduction. 4.1.3.2 Characterization of Grain Boundaries by IS. 4.1.3.3 Characterization of Two-Phase Dispersions by IS. 4.1.3.4 Impedance Spectra of Unusual Two-phase Systems. 4.1.3.5 Impedance Spectra of Composite Electrodes. 4.1.3.6 Closing Remarks. 4.2. Characterization of the Electrical Response of High Resistivity Ionic and Dielectric Solid Materials by Immittance Spectroscopy (J. Ross Macdonald). 4.2.1 Introduction. 4.2.2 Types of Dispersive Response Models: Strengths and Weaknesses. 4.2.2.1 Overview. 4.2.2.2 Variable-slope Models. 4.2.2.3 Composite Models. 4.2.3 Illustration of Typical Data Fitting Results for an Ionic Conductor. 4.3. Solid State Devices (William B. Johnson and Wayne L. Worrell). 4.3.1 Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor (EIS) Sensors. 4.3.2 Solid Electrolyte Chemical Sensors. 4.3.3 Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells. 4.3.4 Impedance Response of Electrochromic Materials and Devices (Gunnar A. Niklasson, Anna Karin Johsson, and Maria Stromme). 4.3.4.1 Introduction. 4.3.4.2 Materials. 4.3.4.3 Experimental Techniques. 4.3.4.4 Experimental Results on Single Materials. 4.3.4.5 Experimental Results on Electrochromic Devices. 4.3.4.6 Conclusions and Outlook. 4.3.5 Time-Resolved Photocurrent Generation (Albert Goossens). 4.3.5.1 Introduction-Semiconductors. 4.3.5.2 Steady-State Photocurrents. 4.3.5.3 Time-of-Flight. 4.3.5.4 Intensity-Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy. 4.3.5.5 Final Remarks. 4.4. Corrosion of Materials (Digby D. Macdonald and Michael C. H. McKubre). 4.4.1 Introduction. 4.4.2 Fundamentals. 4.4.3 Measurement of Corrosion Rate. 4.4.4 Harmonic Analysis. 4.4.5 Kramer-Kronig Transforms. 4.4.6 Corrosion Mechanisms. 4.4.6.1 Active Dissolution. 4.4.6.2 Active-Passive Transition. 4.4.6.3 The Passive State. 4.4.7 Point Defect Model of the Passive State (Digby D. Macdonald). 4.4.7.1 Introduction. 4.4.7.2 Point Defect Model. 4.4.7.3 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. 4.4.7.4 Bilayer Passive Films. 4.4.8 Equivalent Circuit Analysis (Digby D. Macdonald and Michael C. H. McKubre). 4.4.8.1 Coatings. 4.4.9 Other Impedance Techniques. 4.4.9.1 Electrochemical Hydrodynamic Impedance (EHI). 4.4.9.2 Fracture Transfer Function (FTF). 4.4.9.3 Electrochemical Mechanical Impedance. 4.5. Electrochemical Power Sources. 4.5.1 Special Aspects of Impedance Modeling of Power Sources (Evgenij Barsoukov). 4.5.1.1 Intrinsic Relation Between Impedance Properties and Power Sources Performance. 4.5.1.2 Linear Time-Domain Modeling Based on Impedance Models, Laplace Transform. 4.5.1.3 Expressing Model Parameters in Electrical Terms, Limiting Resistances and Capacitances of Distributed Elements. 4.5.1.4 Discretization of Distributed Elements, Augmenting Equivalent Circuits. 4.5.1.5 Nonlinear Time-Domain Modeling of Power Sources Based on Impedance Models. 4.5.1.6 Special Kinds of Impedance Measurement Possible with Power Sources-Passive Load Excitation and Load Interrupt. 4.5.2 Batteries (Evgenij Barsoukov). 4.5.2.1 Generic Approach to Battery Impedance Modeling. 4.5.2.2 Lead Acid Batteries. 4.5.2.3 Nickel Cadmium Batteries. 4.5.2.4 Nickel Metal-hydride Batteries. 4.5.2.5 Li-ion Batteries. 4.5.3 Impedance Behavior of Electrochemical Supercapacitors and Porous Electrodes (Brian E. Conway). 4.5.3.1 Introduction. 4.5.3.2 The Time Factor in Capacitance Charge or Discharge. 4.5.3.3 Nyquist (or Argand) Complex-Plane Plots for Representation of Impedance Behavior. 4.5.3.4 Bode Plots of Impedance Parameters for Capacitors. 4.5.3.5 Hierarchy of Equivalent Circuits and Representation of Electrochemical Capacitor Behavior. 4.5.3.6 Impedance and Voltammetry Behavior of Brush Electrode Models of Porous Electrodes. 4.5.3.7 Impedance Behavior of Supercapacitors Based on Pseudocapacitance. 4.5.3.8 Deviations of Double-layer Capacitance from Ideal Behavior: Representation by a Constant-phase Element (CPE). 4.5.4 Fuel Cells (Norbert Wagner). 4.5.4.1 Introduction. 4.5.4.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC). 4.5.4.3 Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC). 4.5.4.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Appendix. Abbreviations and Definitions of Models. References. Index.

5,212 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit.

Abstract: This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation of photovoltaic arrays. The main objective is to find the parameters of the nonlinear I-V equation by adjusting the curve at three points: open circuit, maximum power, and short circuit. Given these three points, which are provided by all commercial array data sheets, the method finds the best I-V equation for the single-diode photovoltaic (PV) model including the effect of the series and parallel resistances, and warranties that the maximum power of the model matches with the maximum power of the real array. With the parameters of the adjusted I-V equation, one can build a PV circuit model with any circuit simulator by using basic math blocks. The modeling method and the proposed circuit model are useful for power electronics designers who need a simple, fast, accurate, and easy-to-use modeling method for using in simulations of PV systems. In the first pages, the reader will find a tutorial on PV devices and will understand the parameters that compose the single-diode PV model. The modeling method is then introduced and presented in details. The model is validated with experimental data of commercial PV arrays.

3,811 citations

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08 Jun 1976TL;DR: A new canonical circuit model is proposed, whose fixed topology contains all the essential inputr-output and control properties of any dc-todc switching converter, regardless of its detailed configuration, and by which different converters can be characterized in the form of a table conveniently stored in a computer data bank to provide a useful tool for computer aided design and optimization.

Abstract: A method for modelling switching-converter power stages is developed, whose starting point is the unified state-space representation of the switched networks and whose end result is either a complete state-space description or its equivalent small-signal low<-f requency linear circuit model. A new canonical circuit model is proposed, whose fixed topology contains all the essential inputr-output and control properties of any dc-todc switching converter, regardless of its detailed configuration, and by which different converters can be characterized in the form of a table conveniently stored in a computer data bank to provide a useful tool for computer aided design and optimization. The new canonical circuit model predicts that, in general;switching action introduces both zeros and poles into the duty ratio to output transfer function in addition to those from the effective filter network.

2,042 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a realistic characterization of the Si-SiO 2 interface is developed, where a continuum of states is found across the band gap of the silicon, and the dominant contribution in the samples measured arises from a random distribution of surface charge.

Abstract: Measurements of the equivalent parallel conductance of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors are shown to give more detailed and accurate information about interface states than capacitance measurements. Experimental techniques and methods of analysis are described. From the results of the conductance technique, a realistic characterization of the Si–SiO 2 interface is developed. Salient features are: A continuum of states is found across the band gap of the silicon. Capture cross sections for holes and electrons are independent of energy over large portions of the band gap. The surface potential is subject to statistical fluctuations arising from various sources. The dominant contribution in the samples measured arises from a random distribution of surface charge. The fluctuating surface potential causes a dispersion of interface state time constants in the depletion region. In the weak inversion region the dispersion is eliminated by interaction between interface states and the minority carrier band. A single time constant results. From the experimentally established facts, equivalent circuits accurately describing the measurements are constructed.

1,658 citations