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About: Erbium is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6713 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 93891 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Er & element 68.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are modeled using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium. Numerical methods are used to analyze the effects of optical modes and erbium confinement on amplifier performance, and to calculate both the gain and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra. Fibers with confined erbium doping are completely characterized from easily measured parameters: the ratio of the linear ion density to fluorescence lifetime, and the absorption of gain spectra. Analytical techniques then allow accurate evaluation of gain, saturation, and noise in low-gain amplifiers (G >

1,077 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Erbium doped materials are of great interest in thin film integrated optoelectronic technology, due to their Er3+ intra-4f emission at 1.54 μm, a standard telecommunication wavelength. Er-doped dielectric thin films can be used to fabricate planar optical amplifiers or lasers that can be integrated with other devices on the same chip. Semiconductors, such as silicon, can also be doped with erbium. In this case the Er may be excited through optically or electrically generated charge carriers. Er-doped Si light-emitting diodes may find applications in Si-based optoelectronic circuits. In this article, the synthesis, characterization, and application of several different Er-doped thin film photonic materials is described. It focuses on oxide glasses (pure SiO2, phosphosilicate, borosilicate, and soda-lime glasses), ceramic thin films (Al2O3, Y2O3, LiNbO3), and amorphous and crystalline silicon, all doped with Er by ion implantation. MeV ion implantation is a technique that is ideally suited to dope these materials with Er as the ion range corresponds to the typical micron dimensions of these optical materials. The role of implantation defects, the effect of annealing, concentration dependent effects, and optical activation are discussed and compared for the various materials.

1,053 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: High gain amplification of up to 28 dB has been observed in a 3m-long erbium-doped fibre. The amplifier has a spectral bandwidth of greater than 300GHz in the region of 1.536µm and a measured sensitivity of -42dBm at a bit rate of 140 Mbit/s.

851 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Material-dependent properties influencing the performance of fiber amplifiers are reviewed together with the available data for Er/sup 3+/. The major glass types potentially useful in this application are considered and compared to silica. The topics addressed include quenching processes and the solubility of rare-earth ions, transition strengths and bandwidths at the 1500-nm gain transition, and the characteristics at the 800-, 980-, and 1480-nm pump bands. Aluminum is shown to be an extremely useful codopant for silica, improving its ability to dissolve rare-earth ions and providing desirable spectroscopic properties for Er/sup 3+/. For some of the attributes considered, other glasses have advantages over Al silica, but only with respect to gain bandwidth and pumping performance at 800 nm is significantly better than expected from other glass compositions. >

846 citations

01 Jan 1993
Abstract: Rare earth doped fibre fabrication - techniques and physical properties, Jay R Simpson optical and electronic properties of rare earth ions in glasses, Wiliam J Miniscalco devices and configurations for fibre laser sources and amplifiers, Paul Urquhart theory of operation of laser fibre devices, Michael JF Digonnet Nd3+- and Er3+-doped silica fibre lasers, Michael JF Digonnet and E Snitzer narrow line width and tunable fibre lasers, PR Morkel broadband operation of erbium- and neodymium-doped fibre sources, Paul F Wysocki Q-switched fibre lasers, WL Barnes mode-locked fibre lasers, Mark W Phillips rare earth doped heavy-metal fluoride glass fibres, JS Sanghera and ID Aggarwal erbium-doped fibre amplifiers - basic physics and characteristics, E Desurvire applications of fibre amplifiers to telecommunications systems, Noboru Edagawa

836 citations

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