Topic

# Erosion (morphology)

About: Erosion (morphology) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 217 publications have been published within this topic receiving 6598 citations.

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TL;DR: It is shown that any image can be embedded in a one-parameter family of derived images (with resolution as the parameter) in essentially only one unique way if the constraint that no spurious detail should be generated when the resolution is diminished, is applied.

Abstract: In practice the relevant details of images exist only over a restricted range of scale. Hence it is important to study the dependence of image structure on the level of resolution. It seems clear enough that visual perception treats images on several levels of resolution simultaneously and that this fact must be important for the study of perception. However, no applicable mathematically formulated theory to deal with such problems appears to exist. In this paper it is shown that any image can be embedded in a one-parameter family of derived images (with resolution as the parameter) in essentially only one unique way if the constraint that no spurious detail should be generated when the resolution is diminished, is applied. The structure of this family is governed by the well known diffusion equation (a parabolic, linear, partial differential equation of the second order). As such the structure fits into existing theories that treat the front end of the visual system as a continuous stack of homogeneous layers, characterized by iterated local processing schemes. When resolution is decreased the images becomes less articulated because the extrem ("light and dark blobs") disappear one after the other. This erosion of structure is a simple process that is similar in every case. As a result any image can be described as a juxtaposed and nested set of light and dark blobs, wherein each blob has a limited range of resolution in which it manifests itself. The structure of the family of derived images permits a derivation of the sampling density required to sample the image at multiple scales of resolution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

2,641 citations

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TL;DR: The representation of classical linear filters in terms of morphological correlations, which involve supremum/infimum operations and additions, are introduced and demonstrate the power of mathematical morphology as a unifying approach to both linear and nonlinear signal-shaping strategies.

Abstract: This paper examines the set-theoretic interpretation of morphological filters in the framework of mathematical morphology and introduces the representation of classical linear filters in terms of morphological correlations, which involve supremum/infimum operations and additions. Binary signals are classified as sets, and multilevel signals as functions. Two set-theoretic representations of signals are reviewed. Filters are classified as set-processing (SP) or function-processing (FP). Conditions are provided for certain FP filters that pass binary signals to commute with signal thresholding because then they can be analyzed and implemented as SP filters. The basic morphological operations of set erosion, dilation, opening, and closing are related to Minkowski set operations and are used to construct FP morphological filters. Emphasis is then given to analytically and geometrically quantifying the similarities and differences between morphological filtering of signals by sets and functions; the latter case allows the definition of morphological convolutions and correlations. Toward this goal, various properties of FP morphological filters are also examined. Linear shift-invariant filters (due to their translation-invariance) are uniquely characterized by their kernel, which is a special collection of input signals. Increasing linear filters are represented as the supremum of erosions by their kernel functions. If the filters are also discrete and have a finite-extent impulse response, they can be represented as the supremum of erosions only by their minimal (with respect to a signal ordering) kernel functions. Stable linear filters can be represented as the sum of (at most) two weighted suprema of erosions. These results demonstrate the power of mathematical morphology as a unifying approach to both linear and nonlinear signal-shaping strategies.

688 citations

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TL;DR: This paper extends the theory of median, order-statistic (OS), and stack filters by using mathematical morphology to analyze them and by relating them to those morphological erosions, dilations, openings, closings, and open-closings that commute with thresholding.

Abstract: This paper extends the theory of median, order-statistic (OS), and stack filters by using mathematical morphology to analyze them and by relating them to those morphological erosions, dilations, openings, closings, and open-closings that commute with thresholding. The max-min representation of OS filters is introduced by showing that any median or other OS filter is equal to a maximum of erosions (moving local minima) and also to a minimum of dilations (moving local maxima). Thus, OS filters can be computed by a closed formula that involves a max-min on prespecified sets of numbers and no sorting. Stack filters are established as the class of filters that are composed exactly of a finite number of max-min operations. The kernels of median, OS, and stack filters are collections of input signals that uniquely represent these filters due to their translation-invariance. The max-min functional definitions of these nonlinear iliters is shown to be equivalent to a maximum of erosions by minimal (with respect to a signal ordering) kernel elements, and also to a minimum of dilations by minimal kernel elements of dual filters. The representation of stack filters based on their minimal kernel elements is proven to be equivalent to their representation based on irreducible sum-of-products expressions of Boolean functions. It is also shown that median filtering (and its iterations) of any signal by convex 1-D windows is bounded below by openings and above by closings; a signal is a root (fixed point) of the median iff it is a root of both an opening and a closing; the open-closing and clos-opening yield median roots in one pass, suppress impulse noise similarly to the median, can discriminate between positive and negative noise impulses, and are computationally less complex than the median. Some similar results are obtained for 2-D median filtering.

552 citations

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TL;DR: The algorithm is generalized to erosions and dilations along discrete lines at arbitrary angles and the padding problem is addressed; so that the operation can be performed in place without copying the pixels to and from an intermediate buffer.

Abstract: Van Herk (1992) has shown that the erosion/dilation operator with a linear structuring element of an arbitrary length can be implemented in only three min/max operations per pixel. In this paper, the algorithm is generalized to erosions and dilations along discrete lines at arbitrary angles. We also address the padding problem; so that the operation can be performed in place without copying the pixels to and from an intermediate buffer. Applications to image filtering and to radial decompositions of discs are presented.

151 citations

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TL;DR: Two canonical decompositions of mappings between complete lattices are presented, based on the mathematical morphology elementary mappings: erosions, anti-erosions, dilations and anti-dilations, by introducing the concept of morphological connection, that extends the notion of Galois connection.

Abstract: Two canonical decompositions of mappings between complete lattices are presented. These decompositions are based on the mathematical morphology elementary mappings: erosions, anti-erosions, dilations and anti-dilations. The proposed decompositions are obtained by introducing the concept of morphological connection, that extends the notion of Galois connection. The definitions of sup-generating mapping, kernel and basis within the framework of complete lattices are given. The decompositions are built by analysing the kernel and may be simplified from the basis. The results are specialized to the cases of inf-separable, increasing and decreasing mappings. The presented decompositions are dual. Some examples, including the case of boolean functions simplification, illustrate the key concepts and the decomposition rule.

126 citations