About: Estrogen receptor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 34299 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1486255 citations. The topic is also known as: Oestr_rcpt & IPR001292.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR is investigated and the ligand binding specificity of the ER sub types is compared, revealing a single binding component for 16β-estradiol with high affinity.
Abstract: The rat estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta, which differ in the C-terminal ligand binding domain and in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study we investigated the messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR and compared the ligand binding specificity of the ER subtypes. Saturation ligand binding analysis of in vitro synthesized human ER alpha and rat ER beta protein revealed a single binding component for 16 alpha-iodo-17 beta-estradiol with high affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.1 nM for ER alpha protein and 0.4 nM for ER beta protein]. Most estrogenic substances or estrogenic antagonists compete with 16 alpha-[125I]iodo-17 beta-estradiol for binding to both ER subtypes in a very similar preference and degree; that is, diethylstilbestrol > hexestrol > dienestrol > 4-OH-tamoxifen > 17 beta-estradiol > coumestrol, ICI-164384 > estrone, 17 alpha-estradiol > nafoxidine, moxestrol > clomifene > estriol, 4-OH-estradiol > tamoxifen, 2-OH-estradiol, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol, genistein for the ER alpha protein and dienestrol > 4-OH-tamoxifen > diethylstilbestrol > hexestrol > coumestrol, ICI-164384 > 17 beta-estradiol > estrone, genistein > estriol > nafoxidine, 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol > 17 alpha-estradiol, clomifene, 2-OH-estradiol > 4-OH-estradiol, tamoxifen, moxestrol for the ER beta protein. The rat tissue distribution and/or the relative level of ER alpha and ER beta expression seems to be quite different, i.e. moderate to high expression in uterus, testis, pituitary, ovary, kidney, epididymis, and adrenal for ER alpha and prostate, ovary, lung, bladder, brain, uterus, and testis for ER beta. The described differences between the ER subtypes in relative ligand binding affinity and tissue distribution could contribute to the selective action of ER agonists and antagonists in different tissues.
TL;DR: Triple-negative breast cancer, so called because it lacks expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, is often, but not always, a basal-like breast cancer.
Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer, so called because it lacks expression of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2, is often, but not always, a basal-like breast cancer. This review focuses on its origin, molecular and clinical characteristics, and treatment.
TL;DR: Crystal structures of the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER alpha) ligand-binding domain (LBD) and the OHT-LBD complex reveal the two distinct mechanisms by which structural features of OHT promote this "autoinhibitory" helix 12 conformation.
Abstract: Ligand-dependent activation of transcription by nuclear receptors (NRs) is mediated by interactions with coactivators. Receptor agonists promote coactivator binding, and antagonists block coactivator binding. Here we report the crystal structure of the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER alpha) ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound to both the agonist diethylstilbestrol (DES) and a peptide derived from the NR box II region of the coactivator GRIP1 and the crystal structure of the hER alpha LBD bound to the selective antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT). In the DES-LBD-peptide complex, the peptide binds as a short alpha helix to a hydrophobic groove on the surface of the LBD. In the OHT-LBD complex, helix 12 occludes the coactivator recognition groove by mimicking the interactions of the NR box peptide with the LBD. These structures reveal the two distinct mechanisms by which structural features of OHT promote this "autoinhibitory" helix 12 conformation.
TL;DR: A panel of four antibodies (ER, HER1, HER2, and cytokeratin 5/6) can accurately identify basal-like tumors using standard available clinical tools and shows high specificity.
Abstract: Purpose: Expression profiling studies classified breast carcinomas into estrogen receptor (ER)+/luminal, normal breast-like, HER2 overexpressing, and basal-like groups, with the latter two associated with poor outcomes. Currently, there exist clinical assays that identify ER+/luminal and HER2-overexpressing tumors, and we sought to develop a clinical assay for breast basal-like tumors. Experimental Design: To identify an immunohistochemical profile for breast basal-like tumors, we collected a series of known basal-like tumors and tested them for protein patterns that are characteristic of this subtype. Next, we examined the significance of these protein patterns using tissue microarrays and evaluated the prognostic significance of these findings. Results: Using a panel of 21 basal-like tumors, which was determined using gene expression profiles, we saw that this subtype was typically immunohistochemically negative for estrogen receptor and HER2 but positive for basal cytokeratins, HER1, and/or c-KIT. Using breast carcinoma tissue microarrays representing 930 patients with 17.4-year mean follow-up, basal cytokeratin expression was associated with low disease-specific survival. HER1 expression was observed in 54% of cases positive for basal cytokeratins ( versus 11% of negative cases) and was associated with poor survival independent of nodal status and size. c-KIT expression was more common in basal-like tumors than in other breast cancers but did not influence prognosis. Conclusions: A panel of four antibodies (ER, HER1, HER2, and cytokeratin 5/6) can accurately identify basal-like tumors using standard available clinical tools and shows high specificity. These studies show that many basal-like tumors express HER1, which suggests candidate drugs for evaluation in these patients.
TL;DR: A novel estrogen receptor (hereinafter referred to as ERβ) was cloned using degenerate PCR primers and revealed that ERβ is expressed in human thymus, spleen, ovary and testis, and the level of transactivation by 17β‐estradiol is higher for ERα than for ERβ, which may reflect suboptimal conditions for ER β at thelevel of the ligand, responsive element or cellular context.
Abstract: A novel estrogen receptor (hereinafter referred to as ER beta) was cloned using degenerate PCR primers. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of ER beta with the "classical' ER (ER alpha) shows a high degree of conservation of the DNA-binding domain (96%), and of the ligand-binding domain (58%). In contrast, the A/B domain, the hinge region and the F-domain are not conserved. Northern blot analysis revealed that ER beta is expressed in human thymus, spleen, ovary and testis. Transient transfections of an ER beta expression construct together with an ERE-based reporter construct in CHO cells clearly demonstrated transactivation of ER beta by 17 beta-estradiol. In addition, the ER alpha antagonist ICI-164384 is a potent antagonist for ER beta as well. Interestingly, the level of transactivation by 17 beta-estradiol is higher for ER alpha than for ER beta, which may reflect suboptimal conditions for ER beta at the level of the ligand, responsive element or cellular context.
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