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Ethylene glycol

About: Ethylene glycol is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 34671 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 764447 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ethylene alcohol & 1,2-dihydroxyethane.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Porous hydrophilic discs were prepared from two grades of poly(vinyl alcohol) of varying degree of hydrolysis. The influence of the molecular size of the tracer used (potassium chloride, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and bovine serum albumin), that of the addition of a second water-soluble polymer poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol)) and the effect of the tracer/excipient ratio on the release profile were examined. Finally the role of the dynamic swelling and the dissolution of the polymer matrix on the release mechanism are discussed.

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3,906 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is shown that a “nanofluid” consisting of copper nanometer-sized particles dispersed in ethylene glycol has a much higher effective thermal conductivity than either pure ethylene glycol or ethylene glycol containing the same volume fraction of dispersed oxide nanoparticles. The effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol is shown to be increased by up to 40% for a nanofluid consisting of ethylene glycol containing approximately 0.3 vol % Cu nanoparticles of mean diameter <10 nm. The results are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity, but no effect of either particle size or particle thermal conductivity.

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3,164 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Graeme A. Snook1, Pon Kao1, Adam S. Best1Institutions (1)
Abstract: In-situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies of the structural transformations that occur during the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO4 (CLiFePO4) and heat treatment to elevated temperatures were conducted in two different electron microscopes. Both microscopes have sample holders that are capable of heating up to 1500 °C, with one working under high vacuum and the other capable of operating with the sample surrounded by a low gaseous environment. The C-LiFePO4 samples were prepared using three different compositions of precursor materials with Fe(0), Fe(II) or Fe(III), a Li-containing salt and a polyethylene-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-50% ethylene oxide or lactose. The in-situ TEM studies suggest that low-cost Fe(0) and a low-cost carbon-containing compound such as lactose are very attractive precursors for mass production of C-LiFePO4, and that 700 °C is the optimum synthesis temperature. At temperatures higher than 800 °C, LiFePO4 has a tendency to decompose. The same insitu measurements have been made on particles without carbon coat. The results show that the homogeneous deposit of the carbon deposit at 700 °C is the result of the annealing that cures the disorder of the surface layer of bare LiFePO4. Electrochemical tests supported the conclusion that the C-LiFePO4 derived from Fe(0) is the most attractive for mass production.

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2,670 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
29 Aug 2008-Langmuir
TL;DR: In all of these solvents, full exfoliation of the graphite oxide material into individual, single-layer graphene oxide sheets was achieved by sonication, and graphene oxide dispersions exhibited long-term stability and were made of sheets between a few hundred nanometers and a few micrometers large.

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Abstract: The dispersion behavior of graphene oxide in different organic solvents has been investigated. As-prepared graphite oxide could be dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, tetrahydrofuran, and ethylene glycol. In all of these solvents, full exfoliation of the graphite oxide material into individual, single-layer graphene oxide sheets was achieved by sonication. The graphene oxide dispersions exhibited long-term stability and were made of sheets between a few hundred nanometers and a few micrometers large, similar to the case of graphene oxide dispersions in water. These results should facilitate the manipulation and processing of graphene-based materials for different applications.

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2,275 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Byeongmoon Jeong1, Sung Wan Kim2, You Han Bae2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: It is timely to summarize the polymeric systems that undergo sol-gel transitions, particularly due to temperature, with emphasis on the underlying transition mechanisms and potential delivery aspects.

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Abstract: Aqueous polymer solutions that are transformed into gels by changes in environmental conditions, such as temperature and pH, thus resulting in in situ hydrogel formation, have recently attracted the attention of many investigators for scientific interest and for practical biomedical or pharmaceutical applications. When the hydrogel is formed under physiological conditions and maintains its integrity for a desired period of time, the process may provide various advantages over conventional hydrogels. Because of the simplicity of pharmaceutical formulation by solution mixing, biocompatibility with biological systems, and convenient administration, the pharmaceutical and biomedical uses of the water-based sol-gel transition include solubilization of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic drugs, controlled release, labile biomacromolecule delivery, such as proteins and genes, cell immobilization, and tissue engineering. When the formed gel is proven to be biocompatible and biodegradable, producing non-toxic degradation products, it will provide further benefits for in vivo applications where degradation is desired. It is timely to summarize the polymeric systems that undergo sol-gel transitions, particularly due to temperature, with emphasis on the underlying transition mechanisms and potential delivery aspects. This review stresses the polymeric systems of natural or modified natural polymers, N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers, poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers, and poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) block copolymers.

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1,956 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202220
2021807
20201,138
20191,307
20181,480
20171,646

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Kazunori Kataoka

65 papers, 8.3K citations

Xuesi Chen

64 papers, 3.7K citations

Yukio Nagasaki

50 papers, 3.8K citations

Nicholas A. Peppas

44 papers, 7.5K citations

Jeffrey A. Hubbell

31 papers, 4.8K citations