Topic

# Euclidean distance

About: Euclidean distance is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 12262 publications have been published within this topic receiving 230772 citations. The topic is also known as: distance & distance between two points.

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TL;DR: Transitions are proposed for species data tables which allow ecologists to use ordination methods such as PCA and RDA for the analysis of community data, while circumventing the problems associated with the Euclidean distance, and avoiding CA and CCA which present problems of their own in some cases.

Abstract: This paper examines how to obtain species biplots in unconstrained or constrained ordination without resorting to the Euclidean distance [used in principal-component analysis (PCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA)] or the chi-square distance [preserved in correspondence analysis (CA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA)] which are not always appropriate for the analysis of community composition data. To achieve this goal, transformations are proposed for species data tables. They allow ecologists to use ordination methods such as PCA and RDA, which are Euclidean-based, for the analysis of community data, while circumventing the problems associated with the Euclidean distance, and avoiding CA and CCA which present problems of their own in some cases. This allows the use of the original (transformed) species data in RDA carried out to test for relationships with explanatory variables (i.e. environmental variables, or factors of a multifactorial analysis-of-variance model); ecologists can then draw biplots displaying the relationships of the species to the explanatory variables. Another application allows the use of species data in other methods of multivariate data analysis which optimize a least-squares loss function; an example is K-means partitioning.

4,194 citations

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TL;DR: This paper introduces a product quantization-based approach for approximate nearest neighbor search to decompose the space into a Cartesian product of low-dimensional subspaces and to quantize each subspace separately.

Abstract: This paper introduces a product quantization-based approach for approximate nearest neighbor search. The idea is to decompose the space into a Cartesian product of low-dimensional subspaces and to quantize each subspace separately. A vector is represented by a short code composed of its subspace quantization indices. The euclidean distance between two vectors can be efficiently estimated from their codes. An asymmetric version increases precision, as it computes the approximate distance between a vector and a code. Experimental results show that our approach searches for nearest neighbors efficiently, in particular in combination with an inverted file system. Results for SIFT and GIST image descriptors show excellent search accuracy, outperforming three state-of-the-art approaches. The scalability of our approach is validated on a data set of two billion vectors.

2,559 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: The results of two kinds of test applications of a computer program for multidimensional scaling on the basis of essentially nonmetric data are reported to measures of interstimulus similarity and confusability obtained from some actual psychological experiments.

Abstract: A computer program is described that is designed to reconstruct the metric configuration of a set of points in Euclidean space on the basis of essentially nonmetric information about that configuration. A minimum set of Cartesian coordinates for the points is determined when the only available information specifies for each pair of those points—not the distance between them—but some unknown, fixed monotonic function of that distance. The program is proposed as a tool for reductively analyzing several types of psychological data, particularly measures of interstimulus similarity or confusability, by making explicit the multidimensional structure underlying such data.

2,461 citations

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01 Jun 1986-Graphical Models \/graphical Models and Image Processing \/computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing

TL;DR: Six different distance transformations, both old and new, are used for a few different applications, which show both that the choice of distance transformation is important, and that any of the six transformations may be the right choice.

Abstract: A distance transformation converts a binary digital image, consisting of feature and non-feature pixels, into an image where all non-feature pixels have a value corresponding to the distance to the nearest feature pixel. Computing these distances is in principle a global operation. However, global operations are prohibitively costly. Therefore algorithms that consider only small neighborhoods, but still give a reasonable approximation of the Euclidean distance, are necessary. In the first part of this paper optimal distance transformations are developed. Local neighborhoods of sizes up to 7×7 pixels are used. First real-valued distance transformations are considered, and then the best integer approximations of them are computed. A new distance transformation is presented, that is easily computed and has a maximal error of about 2%. In the second part of the paper six different distance transformations, both old and new, are used for a few different applications. These applications show both that the choice of distance transformation is important, and that any of the six transformations may be the right choice.

2,019 citations

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TL;DR: This work introduces a novel technique for the exact indexing of Dynamic time warping and proves its vast superiority over all competing approaches in the largest and most comprehensive set of time series indexing experiments ever undertaken.

Abstract: The problem of indexing time series has attracted much interest. Most algorithms used to index time series utilize the Euclidean distance or some variation thereof. However, it has been forcefully shown that the Euclidean distance is a very brittle distance measure. Dynamic time warping (DTW) is a much more robust distance measure for time series, allowing similar shapes to match even if they are out of phase in the time axis. Because of this flexibility, DTW is widely used in science, medicine, industry and finance. Unfortunately, however, DTW does not obey the triangular inequality and thus has resisted attempts at exact indexing. Instead, many researchers have introduced approximate indexing techniques or abandoned the idea of indexing and concentrated on speeding up sequential searches. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the exact indexing of DTW. We prove that our method guarantees no false dismissals and we demonstrate its vast superiority over all competing approaches in the largest and most comprehensive set of time series indexing experiments ever undertaken.

1,925 citations