About: Eutectic system is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29598 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 452508 citation(s). The topic is also known as: eutectic system & eutectic alloy.
•01 Jan 1981
Abstract: Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams Equilibrium Single-Component Systems Binary Solutions Equilibrium in Heterogeneous Systems Binary Phase Diagrams Influence of Interfaces on Equilibrium Ternary Equilibrium Additional Thermodynamic Relationships for Binary Solutions Computation of Phase Diagrams Kinetics of Phase Transformations Exercises References Further Readings Diffusion Atomic Mechanisms of Diffusion Interstitial Diffusion Substitutional Diffusion Atomic Mobility Tracer Diffusion in Binary Alloys Diffusion in Ternary Alloys High-Diffusivity Paths Diffusion in Multiphase Binary Systems Exercises References Further Readings Crystal Interfaces and Microstructure Interfacial Free Energy Solid=Vapor Interfaces Boundaries in Single-Phase Solids Interphase Interfaces in Solids Interface Migration Exercises References Further Readings Solidification Nucleation in Pure Metals Growth of a Pure Solid Alloy Solidification Solidification of Ingots and Castings Solidification of Fusion Welds Solidification during Quenching from the Melt Metallic Glasses Case Studies of Some Practical Castings and Welds Exercises References Further Readings Diffusional Transformations in Solids Homogeneous Nucleation in Solids Heterogeneous Nucleation Precipitate Growth5 Overall Transformation Kinetics-TTT Diagrams Precipitation in Age-Hardening Alloys Precipitation of Ferrite from Austenite Cellular Precipitation Eutectoid Transformations Massive Transformations Ordering Transformations Case Studies Exercises References Further Readings Diffusionless Transformations Characteristics of Diffusionless Transformations Martensite Crystallography Theories of Martensite Nucleation Martensite Growth1 Premartensite Phenomena Tempering of Ferrous Martensites Case Studies Exercises References Further Readings Solutions to Exercises Compiled by John C. Ion
•01 Jun 1990
Abstract: Introduction Atom Transfer at the Solid/Liquid Interface Morphological Instability of a Solid/Liquid Interface Solidification Microstructure: Cells and Dendrites Solidification Microstructure: Eutectic and Peritectic Solute Redistribution Rapid Solidification Microstructures Summary Appendices Symbols Index
TL;DR: It is shown that the conductivity and viscosity of these liquids is controlled by ion mobility and the availability of voids of suitable dimensions, and this is consistent with the fluidity of other ionic liquids and molten salts.
Abstract: Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) can be formed between a variety of quaternary ammonium salts and carboxylic acids. The physical properties are significantly affected by the structure of the carboxylic acid but the phase behavior of the mixtures can be simply modeled by taking account of the mole fraction of carboxylic acid in the mixture. The physical properties such as viscosity, conductivity, and surface tension of these DES are similar to ambient temperature ionic liquids and insight into the cause of these properties is gained using hole-theory. It is shown that the conductivity and viscosity of these liquids is controlled by ion mobility and the availability of voids of suitable dimensions, and this is consistent with the fluidity of other ionic liquids and molten salts. The DES are also shown to be good solvents for metal oxides, which could have potential application for metal extraction.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract An overview of the phase-field method for modeling solidification is presented, together with several example results. Using a phase-field variable and a corresponding governing equation to describe the state (solid or liquid) in a material as a function of position and time, the diffusion equations for heat and solute can be solved without tracking the liquid-solid interface. The interfacial regions between liquid and solid involve smooth but highly localized variations of the phase-field variable. The method has been applied to a wide variety of problems including dendritic growth in pure materials; dendritic, eutectic, and peritectic growth in alloys; and solute trapping during rapid solidification.
TL;DR: Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry.
Abstract: Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry.