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Evaporation (deposition)

About: Evaporation (deposition) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 12987 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 180073 citation(s).

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Abstract: We review work on In2O3:Sn films prepared by reactive e‐beam evaporation of In2O3 with up to 9 mol % SnO2 onto heated glass. These films have excellent spectrally selective properties when the deposition rate is ∼0.2 nm/s, the substrate temperature is ≳150 °C, and the oxygen pressure is ∼5×10−4 Torr. Optimized coatings have crystallite dimensions ≳50 nm and a C‐type rare‐earth oxide structure. We cover electromagnetic properties as recorded by spectrophotometry in the 0.2–50‐μm range, by X‐band microwave reflectance, and by dc electrical measurements. Hall‐effect data are included. An increase of the Sn content is shown to have several important effects: the semiconductor band gap is shifted towards the ultraviolet, the luminous transmittance remains high, the infrared reflectance increases to a high value beyond a certain wavelength which shifts towards the visible, phonon‐induced infrared absorption bands vanish, the microwave reflectance goes up, and the dc resisitivity drops to ∼2×10−4 Ω cm. The corre...

2,031 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Thick films will be defined here as those sufficiently thick to permit evolutionary selection processes during growth to influence their structures. High rates are defined as those sufficient to deposit thick films in a reasonable time. To avoid superficiality, this review is restricted to evaporation and sputtering, i.e. to physical vapor deposition (PVD). PVD is finding increased use for applications ranging from micro­ electronics to corrosion-barrier and wear-resistant coatings, and to the synthesis of free-standing shapes with unique mechanical properties. The emphasis here is on metallic deposits and on the physics of their growth and structure. Particular attention is given to sputtering, because recent developments ih sputtering tech­ nology make thick film deposition feasible, and because the subject has not been reviewed. Several reviews have concentrated on thick film deposition by evaporation (1, 2). Structure zone models (3-5) [particularly the model proposed by Movchan & Demchishin (3), which predicts three structural forms or zones as a function of T/Tm. where T is the substrate temperature and Tm is the coating-material melting point] have come into increased use in interpreting coating microstructures. There­ fore this review is organized from thc viewpoint of the zone models. After a brief survey of certain pertinent features of evaporation and sputtering, subsequent sections discuss each of the structural zones, metallurgical phase formation, and the mechanical properties of coatings. In this review the structure zones are defined in terms of dominant physical processes rather than structural forms. This generalization permits a broader correlation with experimental observations.

1,894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A low-temperature, large-scale, and versatile synthetic process is needed before ZnO nanowire arrays find realistic applications in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas, and the ease of commercial scale-up is presented.
Abstract: Since the first report of ultraviolet lasing from ZnO nanowires, substantial effort has been devoted to the development of synthetic methodologies for one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Among the various techniques described in the literature, evaporation and condensation processes are favored for their simplicity and high-quality products, but these gas-phase approaches generally require economically prohibitive temperatures of 800–900 8C. Despite recent MOCVD schemes that reduced the deposition temperature to 450 8C by using organometallic zinc precursors, the commercial potential of gas-phase-grown ZnO nanowires remains constrained by the expensive and/or insulating (for example, Al2O3) substrates required for oriented growth, as well as the size and cost of the vapor deposition systems. A low-temperature, large-scale, and versatile synthetic process is needed before ZnO nanowire arrays find realistic applications in solar energy conversion, light emission, and other promising areas. Solution approaches to ZnO nanowires are appealing because of their low growth temperatures and good potential for scale-up. In this regard, Vayssieres et al. developed a hydrothermal process for producing arrays of ZnO microrods and nanorods on conducting glass substrates at 95 8C. Recently, a seeded growth process was used to make helical ZnO rods and columns at a similar temperature. Here we expand on these synthetic methods to produce homogeneous and dense arrays of ZnO nanowires that can be grown on arbitrary substrates under mild aqueous conditions. We present data for arrays on four-inch (ca. 10 cm) silicon wafers and two-inch plastic substrates, which demonstrate the ease of commercial scale-up. The simple two-step procedure yields oriented nanowire films with the largest surface area yet reported for nanowire arrays. The growth process ensures that a majority of the nanowires in the array are in direct contact with the substrate and provide a continuous pathway for carrier transport, an important feature for future electronic devices based on these materials. Well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were grown using a simple two-step process. In the first step, ZnO nanocrystals (5–10 nm in diameter) were spin-cast several times onto a four-inch Si(100) wafer to form a 50–200-nm thick film of crystal seeds. Between coatings, the wafer was annealed at 150 8C to ensure particle adhesion to the wafer surface. The ZnO nanocrystals were prepared according to the method of Pacholski. A NaOH solution in methanol (0.03m) was added slowly to a solution of zinc acetate dihydrate (0.01m) in methanol at 60 8C and stirred for two hours. The resulting nanoparticles are spherical and stable for at least two weeks in solution. After uniformly coating the silicon wafer with ZnO nanocrystals, hydrothermal ZnO growth was carried out by suspending the wafer upside-down in an open crystallizing dish filled with an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate hydrate (0.025m) and methenamine or diethylenetriamine (0.025m) at 90 8C. Reaction times spanned from 0.5 to 6 h. The wafer was then removed from solution, rinsed with deionized water, and dried. A field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to examine the morphology of the nanowire array across the entire wafer, while single nanowires were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanowire crystallinity and growth direction were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction techniques. SEM images taken of several four-inch samples showed that the entire wafer was coated with a highly uniform and densely packed array of ZnO nanowires (Figure 1). X-ray diffraction (not shown) gave a wurtzite ZnO pattern with an enhanced (002) peak resulting from the vertical orientation of the nanowires. A typical synthesis (1.5 h) yielded wires with diameters ranging between 40–80 nm and lengths of 1.5–2 mm.

1,636 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Apr 2003-Nature
TL;DR: An ‘epitaxial casting’ approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30–200 nm and wall thicknesses of 5–50‬nm is reported, applicable to many other semiconductor systems.
Abstract: Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991 (ref. 1), there have been significant research efforts to synthesize nanometre-scale tubular forms of various solids. The formation of tubular nanostructure generally requires a layered or anisotropic crystal structure. There are reports of nanotubes made from silica, alumina, silicon and metals that do not have a layered crystal structure; they are synthesized by using carbon nanotubes and porous membranes as templates, or by thin-film rolling. These nanotubes, however, are either amorphous, polycrystalline or exist only in ultrahigh vacuum. The growth of single-crystal semiconductor hollow nanotubes would be advantageous in potential nanoscale electronics, optoelectronics and biochemical-sensing applications. Here we report an 'epitaxial casting' approach for the synthesis of single-crystal GaN nanotubes with inner diameters of 30-200 nm and wall thicknesses of 5-50 nm. Hexagonal ZnO nanowires were used as templates for the epitaxial overgrowth of thin GaN layers in a chemical vapour deposition system. The ZnO nanowire templates were subsequently removed by thermal reduction and evaporation, resulting in ordered arrays of GaN nanotubes on the substrates. This templating process should be applicable to many other semiconductor systems.

1,134 citations

04 Jun 2003
Abstract: A semiconductor device having excellent crystallinity and excellent electric characteristics includes a ZnO thin film having excellent surface smoothness. ZnO-based thin films (an n-type contact layer, an n-type clad layer, an active layer, a p-type clad layer, and a p-type contact layer) primarily including ZnO are formed sequentially by an ECR sputtering method or other suitable method on a zinc-polar surface of a ZnO substrate. A transparent electrode and a p-side electrode are formed by an evaporation method or other suitable method on a surface of the p-type contact layer, and an n-side electrode is formed on an oxygen-polar surface of the ZnO substrate.

1,021 citations

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