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Excited state

About: Excited state is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 102202 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2234412 citation(s).

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Abstract: A theory of superconductivity is presented, based on the fact that the interaction between electrons resulting from virtual exchange of phonons is attractive when the energy difference between the electrons states involved is less than the phonon energy, $\ensuremath{\hbar}\ensuremath{\omega}$. It is favorable to form a superconducting phase when this attractive interaction dominates the repulsive screened Coulomb interaction. The normal phase is described by the Bloch individual-particle model. The ground state of a superconductor, formed from a linear combination of normal state configurations in which electrons are virtually excited in pairs of opposite spin and momentum, is lower in energy than the normal state by amount proportional to an average ${(\ensuremath{\hbar}\ensuremath{\omega})}^{2}$, consistent with the isotope effect. A mutually orthogonal set of excited states in one-to-one correspondence with those of the normal phase is obtained by specifying occupation of certain Bloch states and by using the rest to form a linear combination of virtual pair configurations. The theory yields a second-order phase transition and a Meissner effect in the form suggested by Pippard. Calculated values of specific heats and penetration depths and their temperature variation are in good agreement with experiment. There is an energy gap for individual-particle excitations which decreases from about $3.5k{T}_{c}$ at $T=0\ifmmode^\circ\else\textdegree\fi{}$K to zero at ${T}_{c}$. Tables of matrix elements of single-particle operators between the excited-state superconducting wave functions, useful for perturbation expansions and calculations of transition probabilities, are given.

8,984 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Time-dependent density-functional (TDDFT) methods are applied within the adiabatic approximation to a series of molecules including C70. Our implementation provides an efficient approach for treating frequency-dependent response properties and electronic excitation spectra of large molecules. We also present a new algorithm for the diagonalization of large non-Hermitian matrices which is needed for hybrid functionals and is also faster than the widely used Davidson algorithm when employed for the Hermitian case appearing in excited energy calculations. Results for a few selected molecules using local, gradient-corrected, and hybrid functionals are discussed. We find that for molecules with low lying excited states TDDFT constitutes a considerable improvement over Hartree–Fock based methods (like the random phase approximation) which require comparable computational effort.

4,274 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We model, in an elementary way, the excited electronic states of semiconductor crystallites sufficiently small (∼50 A diam) that the electronic properties differ from those of bulk materials. In this limit the excited states and ionization processes assume a molecular‐like character. However, diffraction of bonding electrons by the periodic lattice potential remains of paramount importance in the crystallite electronic structure. Schrodinger’s equation is solved at the same level of approximation as used in the analysis of bulk crystalline electron‐hole states (Wannier excitons). Kinetic energy is treated by the effective mass approximation, and the potential energy is due to high frequency dielectric solvation by atomic core electrons. An approximate formula is given for the lowest excited electronic state energy. This expression is dependent upon bulk electronic properties, and contains no adjustable parameters. The optical f number for absorption and emission is also considered. The same model is applied to the problem of two conduction band electrons in a small crystallite, in order to understand how the redox potential of excess electrons depends upon crystallite size.

4,069 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Nov 1992-Science
TL;DR: Because the photoluminescence in the conducting polymer is quenched by interaction with C60, the data imply that charge transfer from the excited state occurs on a picosecond time scale.
Abstract: Evidence for photoinduced electron transfer from the excited state of a conducting polymer onto buckminsterfullerene, C(60), is reported. After photo-excitation of the conjugated polymer with light of energy greater than the pi-pi* gap, an electron transfer to the C(60) molecule is initiated. Photoinduced optical absorption studies demonstrate a different excitation spectrum for the composite as compared to the separate components, consistent with photo-excited charge transfer. A photoinduced electron spin resonance signal exhibits signatures of both the conducting polymer cation and the C(60) anion. Because the photoluminescence in the conducting polymer is quenched by interaction with C(60), the data imply that charge transfer from the excited state occurs on a picosecond time scale. The charge-separated state in composite films is metastable at low temperatures.

3,902 citations

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