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Exoskeleton

About: Exoskeleton is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5112 publications have been published within this topic receiving 69724 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
17 Sep 2007
TL;DR: Electromyography (EMG) measurements on eight important leg muscles, show that free walking in the device strongly resembles free treadmill walking; an indication that the device can offer task-specific gait training.
Abstract: This paper introduces a newly developed gait rehabilitation device. The device, called LOPES, combines a freely translatable and 2-D-actuated pelvis segment with a leg exoskeleton containing three actuated rotational joints: two at the hip and one at the knee. The joints are impedance controlled to allow bidirectional mechanical interaction between the robot and the training subject. Evaluation measurements show that the device allows both a "pa- tient-in-charge" and "robot-in-charge" mode, in which the robot is controlled either to follow or to guide a patient, respectively. Electromyography (EMG) measurements (one subject) on eight important leg muscles, show that free walking in the device strongly resembles free treadmill walking; an indication that the device can offer task-specific gait training. The possibilities and limitations to using the device as gait measurement tool are also shown at the moment position measurements are not accurate enough for inverse-dynamical gait analysis.

1,150 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Berkeley lower extremity exoskeleton (BLEEX) as mentioned in this paper has 7 DOF per leg, four of which are powered by linear hydraulic actuators, and the selection of the DOF, critical hardware design aspects and initial performance measurements of BLEEX are discussed.
Abstract: Wheeled vehicles are often incapable of transporting heavy materials over rough terrain or up staircases. Lower extremity exoskeletons supplement human intelligence with the strength and endurance of a pair of wearable robotic legs that support a payload. This paper summarizes the design and analysis of the Berkeley lower extremity exoskeleton (BLEEX). The anthropomorphically based BLEEX has 7 DOF per leg, four of which are powered by linear hydraulic actuators. The selection of the DOF, critical hardware design aspects, and initial performance measurements of BLEEX are discussed.

1,087 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a cable-actuated dexterous exoskeleton for neurorehabilitation (CADEN)-7 offers remarkable opportunities as a versatile human-machine interface and as a new generation of assistive technology.
Abstract: An exoskeleton is an external structural mechanism with joints and links corresponding to those of the human body. With applications in rehabilitation medicine and virtual reality simulation, exoskeletons offer benefits for both disabled and healthy populations. A pilot database defining the kinematics and dynamics of the upper limb during daily living activities was one among several factors guiding the development of an anthropomorphic, 7-DOF, powered arm exoskeleton. Additional design inputs include anatomical and physiological considerations, workspace analyses, and upper limb joint ranges of motion. The database was compiled from 19 arm activities of daily living. The cable-actuated dexterous exoskeleton for neurorehabilitation (CADEN)-7 offers remarkable opportunities as a versatile human-machine interface and as a new generation of assistive technology. Proximal placement of motors and distal placement of cable-pulley reductions were incorporated into the design, leading to low inertia, high-stiffness links, and backdrivable transmissions with zero backlash. The design enables full glenohumeral, elbow, and wrist joint functionality. Potential applications of the exoskeleton as a wearable robot include: 1) a therapeutic and diagnostics device for physiotherapy, 2) an assistive (orthotic) device for human power amplifications, 3) a haptic device in virtual reality simulation, and 4) a master device for teleoperation.

865 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jun 2015-Nature
TL;DR: This work built a lightweight elastic device that acts in parallel with the user's calf muscles, off-loading muscle force and thereby reducing the metabolic energy consumed in contractions, and shows that the metabolic rate of human walking can be reduced by an unpowered ankle exoskeleton.
Abstract: With efficiencies derived from evolution, growth and learning, humans are very well-tuned for locomotion. Metabolic energy used during walking can be partly replaced by power input from an exoskeleton, but is it possible to reduce metabolic rate without providing an additional energy source? This would require an improvement in the efficiency of the human-machine system as a whole, and would be remarkable given the apparent optimality of human gait. Here we show that the metabolic rate of human walking can be reduced by an unpowered ankle exoskeleton. We built a lightweight elastic device that acts in parallel with the user's calf muscles, off-loading muscle force and thereby reducing the metabolic energy consumed in contractions. The device uses a mechanical clutch to hold a spring as it is stretched and relaxed by ankle movements when the foot is on the ground, helping to fulfil one function of the calf muscles and Achilles tendon. Unlike muscles, however, the clutch sustains force passively. The exoskeleton consumes no chemical or electrical energy and delivers no net positive mechanical work, yet reduces the metabolic cost of walking by 7.2 ± 2.6% for healthy human users under natural conditions, comparable to savings with powered devices. Improving upon walking economy in this way is analogous to altering the structure of the body such that it is more energy-effective at walking. While strong natural pressures have already shaped human locomotion, improvements in efficiency are still possible. Much remains to be learned about this seemingly simple behaviour.

682 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
06 Jul 2004
TL;DR: The RoboKnee allows the wearer to climb stairs and perform deep knee bends while carrying a significant load in a backpack, and provides most of the energy required to work against gravity while the user stays in control, deciding when and where to walk.
Abstract: Exoskeletons that enhance human strength, endurance, and speed while being transparent to the wearer are feasible. In order to be transparent, the exoskeleton must determine the user's intent, apply forces when and where appropriate, and present low impedance to the wearer. We present a one degree of freedom exoskeleton called the RoboKnee which achieves a high level of transparency. User intent is determined through the knee joint angle and ground reaction forces. Torque is applied across the knee in order to allow the user's quadriceps muscles to relax. Low impedance is achieved through the use of series elastic actuators. The RoboKnee allows the wearer to climb stairs and perform deep knee bends while carrying a significant load in a backpack. The device provides most of the energy required to work against gravity while the user stays in control, deciding when and where to walk, as well as providing balance and control. Videos, photographs, and more information about the RoboKnee can be found at http://www.yobotics.com.

616 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023613
20221,506
2021525
2020608
2019695
2018602