About: Exoskeleton Device is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 612 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 9479 citation(s).
01 Feb 2017-
TL;DR: Current lower limb robotic exoskeletons are described, with specific regard to common trends in the field, and a number of emerging technologies could deliver substantial advantages to existing and future exoskeleton designs.
Abstract: Research on robotic exoskeletons has rapidly expanded over the previous decade. Advances in robotic hardware and energy supplies have enabled viable prototypes for human testing. This review paper describes current lower limb robotic exoskeletons, with specific regard to common trends in the field. The preponderance of published literature lacks rigorous quantitative evaluations of exoskeleton performance, making it difficult to determine the disadvantages and drawbacks of many of the devices. We analyzed common approaches in exoskeleton design and the convergence, or lack thereof, with certain technologies. We focused on actuators, sensors, energy sources, materials, and control strategies. One of the largest hurdles to be overcome in exoskeleton research is the user interface and control. More intuitive and flexible user interfaces are needed to increase the success of robotic exoskeletons. In the last section, we discuss promising future solutions to the major hurdles in exoskeleton control. A number of emerging technologies could deliver substantial advantages to existing and future exoskeleton designs. We conclude with a listing of the advantages and disadvantages of the emerging technologies and discuss possible futures for the field.
01 Apr 2009-Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Abstract: Rehabilitation robots have become important tools in stroke rehabilitation. Compared to manual arm training, robot-supported training can be more intensive, of longer duration and more repetitive. Therefore, robots have the potential to improve the rehabilitation process in stroke patients. Whereas a majority of previous work in upper limb rehabilitation robotics has focused on end-effector-based robots, a shift towards exoskeleton robots is taking place because they offer a better guidance of the human arm, especially for movements with a large range of motion. However, the implementation of an exoskeleton device introduces the challenge of reproducing the motion of the human shoulder, which is one of the most complex joints of the body. Thus, this paper starts with describing a simplified model of the human shoulder. On the basis of that model, a new ergonomic shoulder actuation principle that provides motion of the humerus head is proposed, and its implementation in the ARMin III arm therapy robot is described. The focus lies on the mechanics and actuation principle. The ARMin III robot provides three actuated degrees of freedom for the shoulder and one for the elbow joint. An additional module provides actuated lower arm pro/supination and wrist flexion/extension. Five ARMin III devices have been manufactured and they are currently undergoing clinical evaluation in hospitals in Switzerland and in the United States.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of hand exoskeleton technologies for rehabilitation and assistive engineering, from basic hand biomechanics to actuator technologies. Because of rapid advances in mechanical designs and control algorithms for electro-mechanical systems, exoskeleton devices have been developed significantly, but are still limited to use in larger body areas such as upper and lower limbs. However, because of their requirements for smaller size and rich tactile sensing capabilities, hand exoskeletons still face many challenges in many technical areas, including hand biomechanics, neurophysiology, rehabilitation, actuators and sensors, physical human-robot interactions and ergonomics. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of active hand exoskeletons for applications in the areas of rehabilitation and assistive robotics. The main requirements of these hand exoskeleton devices are also identified and the mechanical designs of existing devices are classified. The challenges facing an active hand exoskeleton robot are also discussed.
27 Sep 2013-Journal of stroke
TL;DR: The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies.
Abstract: Research into rehabilitation robotics has grown rapidly and the number of therapeutic rehabilitation robots has expanded dramatically during the last two decades. Robotic rehabilitation therapy can deliver high-dosage and high-intensity training, making it useful for patients with motor disorders caused by stroke or spinal cord disease. Robotic devices used for motor rehabilitation include end-effector and exoskeleton types; herein, we review the clinical use of both types. One application of robot-assisted therapy is improvement of gait function in patients with stroke. Both end-effector and the exoskeleton devices have proven to be effective complements to conventional physiotherapy in patients with subacute stroke, but there is no clear evidence that robotic gait training is superior to conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic stroke or when delivered alone. In another application, upper limb motor function training in patients recovering from stroke, robot-assisted therapy was comparable or superior to conventional therapy in patients with subacute stroke. With end-effector devices, the intensity of therapy was the most important determinant of upper limb motor recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of exoskeleton devices for upper limb motor function in patients with stroke. For rehabilitation of hand motor function, either end-effector and exoskeleton devices showed similar or additive effects relative to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke. The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies. Nevertheless, there will be substantial opportunities for technical development in near future.
01 Mar 2015-
TL;DR: The design, control, and preliminary evaluation of a novel exoskeleton, MINDWALKER, which has a novel step-width adaptation algorithm to stabilize lateral balance and which tested on both healthy subjects and paraplegics showed that all users could successfully trigger steps by CoM displacement.
Abstract: Powered exoskeletons can empower paraplegics to stand and walk. Actively controlled hip ab/adduction (HAA) is needed for weight shift and for lateral foot placement to support dynamic balance control and to counteract disturbances in the frontal plane. Here, we describe the design, control, and preliminary evaluation of a novel exoskeleton, MINDWALKER. Besides powered hip flexion/extension and knee flexion/extension, it also has powered HAA. Each of the powered joints has a series elastic actuator, which can deliver 100 Nm torque and 1 kW power. A finite-state machine based controller provides gait assistance in both the sagittal and frontal planes. State transitions, such as stepping, can be triggered by the displacement of the Center of Mass (CoM). A novel step-width adaptation algorithm was proposed to stabilize lateral balance. We tested this exoskeleton on both healthy subjects and paraplegics. Experimental results showed that all users could successfully trigger steps by CoM displacement. The step-width adaptation algorithm could actively counteract disturbances, such as pushes. With the current implementations, stable walking without crutches has been achieved for healthy subjects but not yet for SCI paraplegics. More research and development is needed to improve the gait stability.