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Explicit symmetry breaking

About: Explicit symmetry breaking is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5482 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 139781 citation(s).

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Abstract: The treatment of first-order phase transitions for standard grand unified theories is shown to break down for models with radiatively induced spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is argued that proper analysis of these transitions which would take place in the early history of the universe can lead to an explanation of the cosmological homogeneity, flatness, and monopole puzzles.

3,900 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: General conditions for dynamical supersymmetry breaking are discussed. Very small effects that would usually be ignored, such as instantons of a grand unified theory, might break supersymmetry at a low energy scale. Examples are given (in 0 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions) in which dynamical supersymmetry breaking occurs. Difficulties that confront such a program in four dimensions are described.

3,164 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: One of the fundamental axioms of quantum mechanics is associated with the Hermiticity of physical observables 1 . In the case of the Hamiltonian operator, this requirement not only implies real eigenenergies but also guarantees probability conservation. Interestingly, a wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can still show entirely real spectra. Among these are Hamiltonians respecting parity‐time (PT) symmetry 2‐7 . Even though the Hermiticity of quantum observables was never in doubt, such concepts have motivated discussions on several fronts in physics, including quantum field theories 8 , nonHermitian Anderson models 9 and open quantum systems 10,11 , to mention a few. Although the impact of PT symmetry in these fields is still debated, it has been recently realized that optics can provide a fertile ground where PT-related notions can be implemented and experimentally investigated 12‐15 . In this letter we report the first observation of the behaviour of a PT optical coupled system that judiciously involves a complex index potential. We observe both spontaneous PT symmetry breaking and power oscillations violating left‐right symmetry. Our results may pave the way towards a new class of PT-synthetic materials with intriguing and unexpected properties that rely on non-reciprocal light propagation and tailored transverse energy flow. Before we introduce the concept of spacetime reflection in optics, we first briefly outline some of the basic aspects of this symmetry within the context of quantum mechanics. In general, a Hamiltonian HD p 2 =2mCV(x

2,537 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work demonstrates experimentally passive PT-symmetry breaking within the realm of optics, which leads to a loss induced optical transparency in specially designed pseudo-Hermitian guiding potentials.
Abstract: In 1998, Bender and Boettcher found that a wide class of Hamiltonians, even though non-Hermitian, can still exhibit entirely real spectra provided that they obey parity-time requirements or PT symmetry. Here we demonstrate experimentally passive PT-symmetry breaking within the realm of optics. This phase transition leads to a loss induced optical transparency in specially designed pseudo-Hermitian guiding potentials.

2,010 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We propose a model of weak interactions in which the currents are constructed out of four basic quark fields and interact with a charged massive vector boson. We show, to all orders in perturbation theory, that the leading divergences do not violate any strong-interaction symmetry and the next to the leading divergences respect all observed weak-interaction selection rules. The model features a remarkable symmetry between leptons and quarks. The extension of our model to a complete Yang-Mills theory is discussed.

1,918 citations

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