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Extended producer responsibility

About: Extended producer responsibility is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1120 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 26805 citation(s). The topic is also known as: EPR.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electronic waste, or e-waste, is an emerging problem as well as a business opportunity of increasing significance, given the volumes of e-waste being generated and the content of both toxic and valuable materials in them. The fraction including iron, copper, aluminium, gold and other metals in e-waste is over 60%, while pollutants comprise 2.70%. Given the high toxicity of these pollutants especially when burned or recycled in uncontrolled environments, the Basel Convention has identified e-waste as hazardous, and developed a framework for controls on transboundary movement of such waste. The Basel Ban, an amendment to the Basel Convention that has not yet come into force, would go one step further by prohibiting the export of e-waste from developed to industrializing countries. Section 1 of this paper gives readers an overview on the e-waste topic—how e-waste is defined, what it is composed of and which methods can be applied to estimate the quantity of e-waste generated. Considering only PCs in use, by one estimate, at least 100 million PCs became obsolete in 2004. Not surprisingly, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) today already constitutes 8% of municipal waste and is one of the fastest growing waste fractions. Section 2 provides insight into the legislation and initiatives intended to help manage these growing quantities of e-waste. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is being propagated as a new

1,225 citations


Book
12 Dec 2018
Abstract: By 2050, the world is expected to generate 340 billion tons of waste annually, increasing drastically from today’s 201 billion tons What a Waste 20: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050 aggregates extensive solid waste data at the national and urban levels It estimates and projects waste generation to 2030 and 2050 Beyond the core data metrics from waste generation to disposal, the report provides information on waste management costs, revenues, and tariffs; special wastes; regulations; public communication; administrative and operational models; and the informal sector

967 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries are presented.
Abstract: Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. This paper presents an overview of toxic substances present in e-waste, their potential environmental and human health impacts together with management strategies currently being used in certain countries. Several tools including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) have been developed to manage e-wastes especially in developed countries. The key to success in terms of e-waste management is to develop eco-design devices, properly collect e-waste, recover and recycle material by safe methods, dispose of e-waste by suitable techniques, forbid the transfer of used electronic devices to developing countries, and raise awareness of the impact of e-waste. No single tool is adequate but together they can complement each other to solve this issue. A national scheme such as EPR is a good policy in solving the growing e-waste problems.

484 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The developing countries are facing huge challenges in the management of electronic waste (e-waste) which are either internally generated or imported illegally as ‘used’ goods in an attempt to bridge the so-called ‘digital divide’. E-waste contains hazardous constituents that may negatively impact the environment and affect human health if not properly managed. In these countries, because of lack of adequate infrastructure to manage wastes safely, these wastes are buried, burnt in the open air or dumped into surface water bodies. Crude ‘backyard’ recycling practices, which are not efficient and are highly polluting are also used in material recovery activities. Most developed countries have in place legislation mandating electronic manufacturers and importers to take-back used electronic products at their end-of-life (EoL) based on the principle of extended producer responsibility (EPR). In this paper, we review the concept of EPR, and discuss selected frameworks. The aim has been to find a mid point for the implementation of even an ‘abridged’ form of EPR in the developing countries. Implementation of EPR in the developing countries has become necessary in the light of the present high level of trans-boundary movement of e-waste into the developing countries and the lack of basic or state-of-the-art recycling and waste disposal facilities. Change in attitude by governments, appropriate legislation dealing specifically with e-waste, control of electronic waste dumping, implementation of EPR and transfer of technology on sound recycling of e-waste are the key issues in effective management of e-waste in developing countries.

431 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Information on informal e-waste management is gathered, a look at its particular manifestations in China is taken, and some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach are identified.
Abstract: Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

420 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20222
202172
202074
201964
201856
201750