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Extreme ultraviolet lithography

About: Extreme ultraviolet lithography is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10418 publications have been published within this topic receiving 116818 citations. The topic is also known as: EUV lithography & EUVL.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Seungchul Kim1, Jonghan Jin1, Young-Jin Kim1, In-Yong Park1, Yunseok Kim1, Seung-Woo Kim1 
05 Jun 2008-Nature
TL;DR: This work demonstrates a method of high-harmonic generation that requires no extra cavities by exploiting the local field enhancement induced by resonant plasmons within a metallic nanostructure consisting of bow-tie-shaped gold elements on a sapphire substrate.
Abstract: High-harmonic generation by focusing a femtosecond laser onto a gas is a well-known method of producing coherent extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light. This nonlinear conversion process requires high pulse intensities, greater than 10(13) W cm(-2), which are not directly attainable using only the output power of a femtosecond oscillator. Chirped-pulse amplification enables the pulse intensity to exceed this threshold by incorporating several regenerative and/or multi-pass amplifier cavities in tandem. Intracavity pulse amplification (designed not to reduce the pulse repetition rate) also requires a long cavity. Here we demonstrate a method of high-harmonic generation that requires no extra cavities. This is achieved by exploiting the local field enhancement induced by resonant plasmons within a metallic nanostructure consisting of bow-tie-shaped gold elements on a sapphire substrate. In our experiment, the output beam emitted from a modest femtosecond oscillator (100-kW peak power, 1.3-nJ pulse energy and 10-fs pulse duration) is directly focused onto the nanostructure with a pulse intensity of only 10(11) W cm(-2). The enhancement factor exceeds 20 dB, which is sufficient to produce EUV wavelengths down to 47 nm by injection with an argon gas jet. The method could form the basis for constructing laptop-sized EUV light sources for advanced lithography and high-resolution imaging applications.

1,320 citations

Book
30 Apr 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, the fundamental properties of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are discussed and their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft X-ray biomicroscopy.
Abstract: This self-contained, comprehensive book describes the fundamental properties of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and discusses their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft x-ray biomicroscopy. The author begins by presenting the relevant basic principles such as radiation and scattering, wave propagation, diffraction, and coherence. He then goes on to examine a broad range of phenomena and applications. The topics covered include EUV lithography, biomicroscopy, spectromicroscopy, EUV astronomy, synchrotron radiation, and soft x-ray lasers. He also provides a great deal of useful reference material such as electron binding energies, characteristic emission lines and photo-absorption cross-sections. The book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences. It will also appeal to practicing engineers involved in semiconductor fabrication and materials science.

786 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 May 2015-Nature
TL;DR: This study indicates the association of the emitted EUV radiation with intraband currents of multi-petahertz frequency, induced in the lowest conduction band of SiO2, and exploits the EUV spectra to gain access to fine details of the energy dispersion profile of the conductionBand that are as yet inaccessible by photoemission spectroscopy in wide-bandgap dielectrics.
Abstract: Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) high-harmonic radiation emerging from laser-driven atoms, molecules or plasmas underlies powerful attosecond spectroscopy techniques and provides insight into fundamental structural and dynamic properties of matter. The advancement of these spectroscopy techniques to study strong-field electron dynamics in condensed matter calls for the generation and manipulation of EUV radiation in bulk solids, but this capability has remained beyond the reach of optical sciences. Recent experiments and theoretical predictions paved the way to strong-field physics in solids by demonstrating the generation and optical control of deep ultraviolet radiation in bulk semiconductors, driven by femtosecond mid-infrared fields or the coherent up-conversion of terahertz fields to multi-octave spectra in the mid-infrared and optical frequencies. Here we demonstrate that thin films of SiO2 exposed to intense, few-cycle to sub-cycle pulses give rise to wideband coherent EUV radiation extending in energy to about 40 electronvolts. Our study indicates the association of the emitted EUV radiation with intraband currents of multi-petahertz frequency, induced in the lowest conduction band of SiO2. To demonstrate the applicability of high-harmonic spectroscopy to solids, we exploit the EUV spectra to gain access to fine details of the energy dispersion profile of the conduction band that are as yet inaccessible by photoemission spectroscopy in wide-bandgap dielectrics. In addition, we use the EUV spectra to trace the attosecond control of the intraband electron motion induced by synthesized optical transients. Our work advances lightwave electronics in condensed matter into the realm of multi-petahertz frequencies and their attosecond control, and marks the advent of solid-state EUV photonics.

653 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a sample of 332 Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 184 QSOs with z > 0.33 to study the typical ultraviolet spectral properties of QSO, with emphasis on the ionizing continuum.
Abstract: We use a sample of 332 Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 184 QSOs with z > 0.33 to study the typical ultraviolet spectral properties of QSOs, with emphasis on the ionizing continuum. Our sample is nearly twice as large as that of Zheng et al. (1997) and provides much better spectral coverage in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The overall composite continuum can be described by a power law with index alpha_EUV = -1.76 +/- 0.12 (f_nu ~ nu^alpha) between 500 and 1200 Angstroms. The corresponding results for subsamples of radio-quiet and radio-loud QSOs are alpha_EUV = -1.57 +/- 0.17 and alpha_EUV = -1.96 +/- 0.12, respectively. We also derive alpha_EUV for as many individual objects in our sample as possible, totaling 39 radio-quiet and 40 radio-loud QSOs. The typical individually measured values of alpha_EUV are in good agreement with the composites. We find no evidence for evolution of alpha_EUV with redshift for either radio-loud or radio-quiet QSOs. However, we do find marginal evidence for a trend towards harder EUV spectra with increasing luminosity for radio-loud objects. An extrapolation of our radio-quiet QSO spectrum is consistent with existing X-ray data, suggesting that the ionizing continuum may be represented by a single power law. The resulting spectrum is roughly in agreement with models of the intergalactic medium photoionized by the integrated radiation from QSOs.

609 citations

Book
28 Aug 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the fundamental properties of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are discussed and their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft X-ray biomicroscopy.
Abstract: This self-contained, comprehensive book describes the fundamental properties of soft x-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and discusses their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft x-ray biomicroscopy. The author begins by presenting the relevant basic principles such as radiation and scattering, wave propagation, diffraction, and coherence. He then goes on to examine a broad range of phenomena and applications. Each chapter begins with a simple summary of key results and concepts, followed by an introduction with little or no mathematics so as to be accessible to the widest possible audience. This is followed by a detailed mathematical development of the theoretical structure of the subject in question. The topics covered include EUV lithography, biomicroscopy, spectromicroscopy, EUV astronomy, synchrotron radiation, and soft x-ray lasers. The author also provides a great deal of useful reference material such as electron binding energies, characteristic emission lines, and photoabsorption cross-sections. The bookwill be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences. It will also appeal to practicing engineers involved in semiconductor fabrication and materials science.

599 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023286
2022541
2021224
2020354
2019386
2018377