Fatty acid-binding protein
About: Fatty acid-binding protein is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1721 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 81530 citation(s). The topic is also known as: FABP.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is shown that to accommodate the increased requirement for hepatic fatty acid oxidation, PPAR α mRNA is induced during fasting in wildtype mice, indicating that PPARα plays a pivotal role in the management of energy stores during fasting.
Abstract: Prolonged deprivation of food induces dramatic changes in mammalian metabolism, including the release of large amounts of fatty acids from the adipose tissue, followed by their oxidation in the liver. The nuclear receptor known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was found to play a role in regulating mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, suggesting that PPARalpha may be involved in the transcriptional response to fasting. To investigate this possibility, PPARalpha-null mice were subjected to a high fat diet or to fasting, and their responses were compared with those of wild-type mice. PPARalpha-null mice chronically fed a high fat diet showed a massive accumulation of lipid in their livers. A similar phenotype was noted in PPARalpha-null mice fasted for 24 hours, who also displayed severe hypoglycemia, hypoketonemia, hypothermia, and elevated plasma free fatty acid levels, indicating a dramatic inhibition of fatty acid uptake and oxidation. It is shown that to accommodate the increased requirement for hepatic fatty acid oxidation, PPARalpha mRNA is induced during fasting in wild-type mice. The data indicate that PPARalpha plays a pivotal role in the management of energy stores during fasting. By modulating gene expression, PPARalpha stimulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation to supply substrates that can be metabolized by other tissues.
TL;DR: Cell culture models (e.g. 3T3-L1 cells) have been developed and transcription factors coordinate the expression of genes involved in creating and maintaining the adipocyte phenotype including the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), and the fatty acid binding protein (422/aP2).
Abstract: Cell culture models (e.g. 3T3-L1 cells) have been developed for studying the process of adipocyte differentiation. Differentiation can be induced by adding insulin-like growth factor I, glucocorticoid, fatty acids, and an agent that increases intracellular cAMP level. The adipocyte differentiation program is regulated by transcriptional activators such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha), peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor gamma 2 (PPAR gamma 2), fatty acid activated receptor (FAAR), and transcriptional repressors such as preadipocyte repressor element binding protein (PRE) and C/EBP undifferentiated protein (CUP). These transcription factors coordinate the expression of genes involved in creating and maintaining the adipocyte phenotype including the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4), stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), and the fatty acid binding protein (422/aP2).
TL;DR: Results indicate that aP2 is central to the pathway that links obesity to insulin resistance, possibly by linking fatty acid metabolism to expression of TNF-α.
Abstract: Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytoplasmic proteins that are expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner and bind to fatty acids such as oleic and retinoic acid. Mice with a null mutation in aP2 , the gene encoding the adipocyte FABP, were developmentally and metabolically normal. The aP2 -deficient mice developed dietary obesity but, unlike control mice, they did not develop insulin resistance or diabetes. Also unlike their obese wild-type counterparts, obese aP2 −/− animals failed to express in adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a molecule implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance. These results indicate that aP2 is central to the pathway that links obesity to insulin resistance, possibly by linking fatty acid metabolism to expression of TNF-α.
TL;DR: Immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes show that FATP is localized to the plasma membrane, and it is proposed thatfatP is a plasma membrane transporter for LCFAs.
Abstract: Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are an important energy substrate used by cardiac myocytes and other cells, but the mechanism whereby these molecules cross the plasma membrane is poorly understood. We used an expression cloning strategy and a cDNA library from 3T3-L1 adipocytes to identify a cDNA that, when expressed in cultured cells, augments uptake of LCFAs. This cDNA encodes a novel 646 amino acid fatty acid transport protein (FATP) with six predicted membrane-spanning regions and that is integrally associated with membranes. Immunocytochemistry and subcellular fractionation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes show that FATP is localized to the plasma membrane. We propose that FATP is a plasma membrane transporter for LCFAs.
TL;DR: These results are the first to provide in vivo evidence of significant roles for PPARβ in development, myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation.
Abstract: In the past 10 years, specific roles for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ have emerged while information defining PPARβ-dependent processes is lacking. PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily (34). The three PPARs exhibit unique tissue distribution, are encoded by separate genes in all species examined to date, and are designated by the subtypes α, β (δ, NUC1), and γ (14, 18, 34, 47, 48). Acting as regulatory transcription factors, the PPARs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors and modulate gene expression in target genes containing peroxisome proliferator-responsive elements (PPREs) in response to ligand activation. The three PPARs have related but distinct activities. Activation of PPARα can occur as a result of cold shock (19), food restriction (26), dietary fatty acids (44), and treatment with the hypolipidemic fibrate class of drugs (31). Peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidizing enzymes, microsomal ω-oxidizing enzymes, hepatic fatty acid binding protein, carnitine palmitoyltransferases, and a number of apolipoproteins are all regulated by PPARα ligands/activators (3, 26, 31, 38, 41, 44). These data, obtained in part from the PPARα-null mouse, provide strong in vivo evidence that PPARα regulates lipid metabolism by regulating gene expression of numerous proteins which are clinically relevant for a number of diseases including diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Another PPAR isoform, PPARγ, is required for adipocyte differentiation and regulation of adipocyte-specific genes such as the gene for adipocyte fatty acid binding protein aP2 (47). Similar to PPARα, PPARγ is activated by specific ligands, most notably the thiazolidinedione drugs used for type 2 diabetes therapy (32). The phenotype of a PPARγ-null mouse line is embryo lethal due in part to disrupted placental function (4). Tetraploid rescue experiments to bypass the placental defect confirmed an in vivo role for the receptor in adipogenesis (4). Analysis of heterozygotes and chimeras also established a role for PPARγ in adipocyte function and glucose homeostasis (29, 45). Thus, it is clear from null mouse studies that there are distinct metabolic roles for PPARα and PPARγ. The function of PPARβ has remained elusive. While PPARβ is ubiquitously expressed, some tissues express relatively higher levels of the mRNA including the brain, adipose tissue, and skin (2, 8). Expression of PPARβ is considerably higher in the developing neural tube and the epidermis during rat development (9). No target genes that are controlled only by PPARβ have been identified, but activators for PPARβ including fatty acids (27), bezafibrate (28), and a furan-conjugated linoleic acid metabolite (39) are reported to activate reporter gene constructs containing PPREs through PPARβ. Despite the lack of a specific PPARβ ligand to induce activation, there are several reports suggesting roles for PPARβ in adipocyte differentiation (5), brain function (51), epidermal differentiation (37), uterine implantation (33), and colon cancer (20). In large part, these studies are correlative associations; definitive proof for PPARβ function requires the use of a null mouse model. In the present study, a PPARβ-null mouse was generated and characterized to identify physiological functions dependent on PPARβ.
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