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Fatty acid metabolism

About: Fatty acid metabolism is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4481 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 189094 citation(s). The topic is also known as: GO:0006631 & fatty acid metabolism.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: GF animals are protected from diet-induced obesity by two complementary but independent mechanisms that result in increased fatty acid metabolism: elevated levels of Fiaf, which induces Pgc-1α; and increased AMPK activity.
Abstract: The trillions of microbes that colonize our adult intestines function collectively as a metabolic organ that communicates with, and complements, our own human metabolic apparatus. Given the worldwide epidemic in obesity, there is interest in how interactions between human and microbial metabolomes may affect our energy balance. Here we report that, in contrast to mice with a gut microbiota, germ-free (GF) animals are protected against the obesity that develops after consuming a Western-style, high-fat, sugar-rich diet. Their persistently lean phenotype is associated with increased skeletal muscle and liver levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream targets involved in fatty acid oxidation (acetylCoA carboxylase; carnitine-palmitoyltransferase). Moreover, GF knockout mice lacking fasting-induced adipose factor (Fiaf), a circulating lipoprotein lipase inhibitor whose expression is normally selectively suppressed in the gut epithelium by the microbiota, are not protected from diet-induced obesity. Although GF Fiaf−/− animals exhibit similar levels of phosphorylated AMPK as their wild-type littermates in liver and gastrocnemius muscle, they have reduced expression of genes encoding the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor coactivator (Pgc-1α) and enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation. Thus, GF animals are protected from diet-induced obesity by two complementary but independent mechanisms that result in increased fatty acid metabolism: (i) elevated levels of Fiaf, which induces Pgc-1α; and (ii) increased AMPK activity. Together, these findings support the notion that the gut microbiota can influence both sides of the energy balance equation, and underscore the importance of considering our metabolome in a supraorganismal context.

2,043 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
19 Feb 2010-Science
TL;DR: It is revealed that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism, and plays a major role in metabolic regulation.
Abstract: Protein lysine acetylation has emerged as a key posttranslational modification in cellular regulation, in particular through the modification of histones and nuclear transcription regulators. We show that lysine acetylation is a prevalent modification in enzymes that catalyze intermediate metabolism. Virtually every enzyme in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the urea cycle, fatty acid metabolism, and glycogen metabolism was found to be acetylated in human liver tissue. The concentration of metabolic fuels, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, influenced the acetylation status of metabolic enzymes. Acetylation activated enoyl–coenzyme A hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl–coenzyme A dehydrogenase in fatty acid oxidation and malate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle, inhibited argininosuccinate lyase in the urea cycle, and destabilized phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in gluconeogenesis. Our study reveals that acetylation plays a major role in metabolic regulation.

1,508 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The regulation of myocardial fatty acid beta-oxidation is reviewed and how alterations in fatty acid Beta-Oxidation can contribute to heart disease is discussed.
Abstract: There is a constant high demand for energy to sustain the continuous contractile activity of the heart, which is met primarily by the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The control of fatty acid β-oxidation is complex and is aimed at ensuring that the supply and oxidation of the fatty acids is sufficient to meet the energy demands of the heart. The metabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation is not regulated in isolation; rather, it occurs in response to alterations in contractile work, the presence of competing substrates (i.e., glucose, lactate, ketones, amino acids), changes in hormonal milieu, and limitations in oxygen supply. Alterations in fatty acid metabolism can contribute to cardiac pathology. For instance, the excessive uptake and β-oxidation of fatty acids in obesity and diabetes can compromise cardiac function. Furthermore, alterations in fatty acid β-oxidation both during and after ischemia and in the failing heart can also contribute to cardiac pathology. This paper reviews the regulation of myocardial fatty acid β-oxidation and how alterations in fatty acid β-oxidation can contribute to heart disease. The implications of inhibiting fatty acid β-oxidation as a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of various forms of heart disease are also discussed.

1,423 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2010-Hepatology
TL;DR: It is not clear whether NAFLD causes metabolic dysfunction or whether metabolic dysfunction is responsible for IHTG accumulation, or possibly both, but it is likely that abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism are key factors involved in the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and other cardiometabolic risk factors associated withNAFLD.
Abstract: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Steatosis, the hallmark feature of NAFLD, occurs when the rate of hepatic fatty acid uptake from plasma and de novo fatty acid synthesis is greater than the rate of fatty acid oxidation and export (as triglyceride within very low-density lipoprotein). Therefore, an excessive amount of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) represents an imbalance between complex interactions of metabolic events. The presence of steatosis is associated with a constellation of adverse alterations in glucose, fatty acid, and lipoprotein metabolism. It is likely that abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism, in conjunction with adipose tissue, hepatic, and systemic inflammation, are key factors involved in the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD. However, it is not clear whether NAFLD causes metabolic dysfunction or whether metabolic dysfunction is responsible for IHTG accumulation, or possibly both. Understanding the precise factors involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD will provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the cardiometabolic complications of obesity.

1,395 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent studies linking fatty acids to endothelial dysfunction, together with the clear role of VLDL in the stimulation of PAI-1, further support the view that dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism sits close to the center of the pathophysiology of the insulin resistance syndrome, at least as it relates to risk for cardiovascular disease.
Abstract: Clearly, insulin resistance is not simply a problem of deficient glucose uptake in response to insulin, but a multifaceted syndrome that increases significantly the risk for cardiovascular disease. The links between insulin resistance and the associated dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypercoagulability, and atherosclerosis are numerous and complex. This complexity derives both from the almost certain multiple causes of the insulin resistance syndrome and from the interaction of genes predisposing to insulin resistance with other genes that have their own, independent impact on lipid metabolism, blood pressure regulation, coagulation, and artery wall biology. Nonetheless, I suggest that dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism plays a central role in the development of this phenotype. Thus, the association between insulin resistance and dyslipidemia is clearly initiated by increased FFA release from, or defective uptake of FFAs into, adipocytes. Recent studies linking fatty acids to endothelial dysfunction, together with the clear role of VLDL in the stimulation of PAI-1, further support the view that dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism sits close to the center of the pathophysiology of the insulin resistance syndrome, at least as it relates to risk for cardiovascular disease.

1,133 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
2021238
2020230
2019209
2018179
2017184

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Douglas R. Tocher

21 papers, 2.5K citations

Rolf K. Berge

16 papers, 850 citations

Gary D. Lopaschuk

15 papers, 2.1K citations

Rosalind A. Coleman

12 papers, 813 citations

Charles O. Rock

7 papers, 974 citations