Fatty acid synthesis
About: Fatty acid synthesis is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4530 publications have been published within this topic receiving 214811 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The complex, interdigitated roles of these three SREBPs have been dissected through the study of ten different lines of gene-manipulated mice and form the subject of this review.
Abstract: Lipid homeostasis in vertebrate cells is regulated by a family of membrane-bound transcription factors designated sterol regulatory element–binding proteins (SREBPs). SREBPs directly activate the expression of more than 30 genes dedicated to the synthesis and uptake of cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, and phospholipids, as well as the NADPH cofactor required to synthesize these molecules (1–4). In the liver, three SREBPs regulate the production of lipids for export into the plasma as lipoproteins and into the bile as micelles. The complex, interdigitated roles of these three SREBPs have been dissected through the study of ten different lines of gene-manipulated mice. These studies form the subject of this review.
TL;DR: Transformed cells exhibit a high rate of glutamine consumption that cannot be explained by the nitrogen demand imposed by nucleotide synthesis or maintenance of nonessential amino acid pools, and glutamine metabolism provides a carbon source that facilitates the cell's ability to use glucose-derived carbon and TCA cycle intermediates as biosynthetic precursors.
Abstract: Tumor cell proliferation requires rapid synthesis of macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Many tumor cells exhibit rapid glucose consumption, with most of the glucose-derived carbon being secreted as lactate despite abundant oxygen availability (the Warburg effect). Here, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to examine the metabolism of glioblastoma cells exhibiting aerobic glycolysis. In these cells, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was active but was characterized by an efflux of substrates for use in biosynthetic pathways, particularly fatty acid synthesis. The success of this synthetic activity depends on activation of pathways to generate reductive power (NADPH) and to restore oxaloacetate for continued TCA cycle function (anaplerosis). Surprisingly, both these needs were met by a high rate of glutamine metabolism. First, conversion of glutamine to lactate (glutaminolysis) was rapid enough to produce sufficient NADPH to support fatty acid synthesis. Second, despite substantial mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism, pyruvate carboxylation was suppressed, and anaplerotic oxaloacetate was derived from glutamine. Glutamine catabolism was accompanied by secretion of alanine and ammonia, such that most of the amino groups from glutamine were lost from the cell rather than incorporated into other molecules. These data demonstrate that transformed cells exhibit a high rate of glutamine consumption that cannot be explained by the nitrogen demand imposed by nucleotide synthesis or maintenance of nonessential amino acid pools. Rather, glutamine metabolism provides a carbon source that facilitates the cell's ability to use glucose-derived carbon and TCA cycle intermediates as biosynthetic precursors.
TL;DR: It is not clear whether NAFLD causes metabolic dysfunction or whether metabolic dysfunction is responsible for IHTG accumulation, or possibly both, but it is likely that abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism are key factors involved in the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and other cardiometabolic risk factors associated withNAFLD.
Abstract: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Steatosis, the hallmark feature of NAFLD, occurs when the rate of hepatic fatty acid uptake from plasma and de novo fatty acid synthesis is greater than the rate of fatty acid oxidation and export (as triglyceride within very low-density lipoprotein). Therefore, an excessive amount of intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) represents an imbalance between complex interactions of metabolic events. The presence of steatosis is associated with a constellation of adverse alterations in glucose, fatty acid, and lipoprotein metabolism. It is likely that abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism, in conjunction with adipose tissue, hepatic, and systemic inflammation, are key factors involved in the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and other cardiometabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD. However, it is not clear whether NAFLD causes metabolic dysfunction or whether metabolic dysfunction is responsible for IHTG accumulation, or possibly both. Understanding the precise factors involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD will provide important insights into the mechanisms responsible for the cardiometabolic complications of obesity.
TL;DR: Branched-chain fatty acids of the iso and anteiso series occur in many bacteria as the major acyl constituents of membrane lipids and are an important criterion used to aid identification and classification of bacteria.
Abstract: Branched-chain fatty acids of the iso and anteiso series occur in many bacteria as the major acyl constituents of membrane lipids. In addition, omega-cyclohexyl and omega-cycloheptyl fatty acids are present in several bacterial species. These two types of fatty acids are synthesized by the repeated condensation of malonyl coenzyme A with one of the branched-chain and cyclic primers by the same enzyme system. The pathway of de novo branched-chain fatty acid synthesis differs only in initial steps of synthesis from that of the common straight-chain fatty acid (palmitic acid) present in most organisms. The cell membranes composed largely of iso-, anteiso-, and omega-alicyclic acids support growth of bacteria, which inhabit normal as well as extreme environments. The occurrence of these types of fatty acids as major cellular fatty acids is an important criterion used to aid identification and classification of bacteria.
TL;DR: Adiponectin was effective in ameliorating hepatomegaly, steatosis, and alanine aminotransferase abnormality associated with nonalcoholic obese, ob/ob mice and could suppress the hepatic production of TNF-alpha and plasma concentrations of this proinflammatory cytokine.
Abstract: Adiponectin has recently been shown to be a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Replenishment of recombinant adiponectin in mice can decrease hyperglycemia, reverse insulin resistance, and cause sustained weight loss without affecting food intake. Here we report its potential roles in alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases in mice. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin decreased significantly following chronic consumption of high-fat ethanol-containing food. Delivery of recombinant adiponectin into these mice dramatically alleviated hepatomegaly and steatosis (fatty liver) and also significantly attenuated inflammation and the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase. These therapeutic effects resulted partly from the ability of adiponectin to increase carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity and enhance hepatic fatty acid oxidation, while it decreased the activities of two key enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. Furthermore, adiponectin treatment could suppress the hepatic production of TNF-alpha and plasma concentrations of this proinflammatory cytokine. Adiponectin was also effective in ameliorating hepatomegaly, steatosis, and alanine aminotransferase abnormality associated with nonalcoholic obese, ob/ob mice. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism of adiponectin action and suggest a potential clinical application of adiponectin and its agonists in the treatment of liver diseases.
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