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Femtocell

About: Femtocell is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5396 publications have been published within this topic receiving 92954 citations. The topic is also known as: Access Point Base Station.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The technical and business arguments for femtocells are overview and the state of the art on each front is described and the technical challenges facing femtocell networks are described and some preliminary ideas for how to overcome them are given.
Abstract: The surest way to increase the system capacity of a wireless link is by getting the transmitter and receiver closer to each other, which creates the dual benefits of higher-quality links and more spatial reuse. In a network with nomadic users, this inevitably involves deploying more infrastructure, typically in the form of microcells, hot spots, distributed antennas, or relays. A less expensive alternative is the recent concept of femtocells - also called home base stations - which are data access points installed by home users to get better indoor voice and data coverage. In this article we overview the technical and business arguments for femtocells and describe the state of the art on each front. We also describe the technical challenges facing femtocell networks and give some preliminary ideas for how to overcome them.

3,298 citations

Book
21 Mar 2011
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on LTE with full updates including LTE-Advanced to provide a complete picture of the LTE system, including the physical layer, access procedures, broadcast, relaying, spectrum and RF characteristics, and system performance.
Abstract: Based on the bestseller "3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for mobile broadband" and reflecting the ongoing success of LTE throughout the world, this book focuses on LTE with full updates including LTE-Advanced to provide a complete picture of the LTE system. Overview and detailed explanations are given for the latest LTE standards for radio interface architecture, the physical layer, access procedures, broadcast, relaying, spectrum and RF characteristics, and system performance. Key technologies presented include multi-carrier transmission, advanced single-carrier transmission, advanced receivers, OFDM, MIMO and adaptive antenna solutions, advanced radio resource management and protocols, and different radio network architectures. Their role and use in the context of mobile broadband access in general is explained. Both a high-level overview and more detailed step-by-step explanations of the LTE/LTE-Advanced implementation are given. An overview of other related systems such as GSM/EDGE, HSPA, CDMA2000, and WIMAX is also provided. This book is a 'must-have' resource for engineers and other professionals in the telecommunications industry, working with cellular or wireless broadband technologies, giving an understanding of how to utilize the new technology in order to stay ahead of the competition. The authors of the book all work at Ericsson Research and have been deeply involved in 3G and 4G development and standardisation since the early days of 3G research. They are leading experts in the field and are today still actively contributing to the standardisation of LTE within 3GPP. Includes full details of the latest additions to the LTE Radio Access standards and technologies up to and including 3GPP Release 10Clear explanations of the role of the underlying technologies for LTE, including OFDM and MIMO Full coverage of LTE-Advanced, including LTE carrier aggregation, extended multi-antenna transmission, relaying functionality and heterogeneous deploymentsLTE radio interface architecture, physical layer, access procedures, MBMS, RF characteristics and system performance covered in detail

1,845 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Cellular networks are in a major transition from a carefully planned set of large tower-mounted base-stations (BSs) to an irregular deployment of heterogeneous infrastructure elements that often additionally includes micro, pico, and femtocells, as well as distributed antennas. In this paper, we develop a tractable, flexible, and accurate model for a downlink heterogeneous cellular network (HCN) consisting of K tiers of randomly located BSs, where each tier may differ in terms of average transmit power, supported data rate and BS density. Assuming a mobile user connects to the strongest candidate BS, the resulting Signal-to-Interference-plus-Noise-Ratio (SINR) is greater than 1 when in coverage, Rayleigh fading, we derive an expression for the probability of coverage (equivalently outage) over the entire network under both open and closed access, which assumes a strikingly simple closed-form in the high SINR regime and is accurate down to -4 dB even under weaker assumptions. For external validation, we compare against an actual LTE network (for tier 1) with the other K-1 tiers being modeled as independent Poisson Point Processes. In this case as well, our model is accurate to within 1-2 dB. We also derive the average rate achieved by a randomly located mobile and the average load on each tier of BSs. One interesting observation for interference-limited open access networks is that at a given \sinr, adding more tiers and/or BSs neither increases nor decreases the probability of coverage or outage when all the tiers have the same target-SINR.

1,640 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a low-complexity distributed algorithm that converges to a near-optimal solution with a theoretical performance guarantee, and observe that simple per-tier biasing loses surprisingly little, if the bias values Aj are chosen carefully.
Abstract: For small cell technology to significantly increase the capacity of tower-based cellular networks, mobile users will need to be actively pushed onto the more lightly loaded tiers (corresponding to, e.g., pico and femtocells), even if they offer a lower instantaneous SINR than the macrocell base station (BS). Optimizing a function of the long-term rate for each user requires (in general) a massive utility maximization problem over all the SINRs and BS loads. On the other hand, an actual implementation will likely resort to a simple biasing approach where a BS in tier j is treated as having its SINR multiplied by a factor Aj ≥ 1, which makes it appear more attractive than the heavily-loaded macrocell. This paper bridges the gap between these approaches through several physical relaxations of the network-wide association problem, whose solution is NP hard. We provide a low-complexity distributed algorithm that converges to a near-optimal solution with a theoretical performance guarantee, and we observe that simple per-tier biasing loses surprisingly little, if the bias values Aj are chosen carefully. Numerical results show a large (3.5x) throughput gain for cell-edge users and a 2x rate gain for median users relative to a maximizing received power association.

1,129 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview of the techniques being considered for LTE Release 10 (aka LTEAdvanced) is discussed, which includes bandwidth extension via carrier aggregation to support deployment bandwidths up to 100 MHz, downlink spatial multiplexing including single-cell multi-user multiple-input multiple-output transmission and coordinated multi point transmission, and heterogeneous networks with emphasis on Type 1 and Type 2 relays.
Abstract: LTE Release 8 is one of the primary broadband technologies based on OFDM, which is currently being commercialized. LTE Release 8, which is mainly deployed in a macro/microcell layout, provides improved system capacity and coverage, high peak data rates, low latency, reduced operating costs, multi-antenna support, flexible bandwidth operation and seamless integration with existing systems. LTE-Advanced (also known as LTE Release 10) significantly enhances the existing LTE Release 8 and supports much higher peak rates, higher throughput and coverage, and lower latencies, resulting in a better user experience. Additionally, LTE Release 10 will support heterogeneous deployments where low-power nodes comprising picocells, femtocells, relays, remote radio heads, and so on are placed in a macrocell layout. The LTE-Advanced features enable one to meet or exceed IMT-Advanced requirements. It may also be noted that LTE Release 9 provides some minor enhancement to LTE Release 8 with respect to the air interface, and includes features like dual-layer beamforming and time-difference- of-arrival-based location techniques. In this article an overview of the techniques being considered for LTE Release 10 (aka LTEAdvanced) is discussed. This includes bandwidth extension via carrier aggregation to support deployment bandwidths up to 100 MHz, downlink spatial multiplexing including single-cell multi-user multiple-input multiple-output transmission and coordinated multi point transmission, uplink spatial multiplexing including extension to four-layer MIMO, and heterogeneous networks with emphasis on Type 1 and Type 2 relays. Finally, the performance of LTEAdvanced using IMT-A scenarios is presented and compared against IMT-A targets for full buffer and bursty traffic model.

1,044 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202328
202255
202157
202096
2019161
2018198