Topic

# Fermi energy

About: Fermi energy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10458 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 263630 citation(s).

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Abstract: We review recent work on Raman spectroscopy of graphite and graphene. We focus on the origin of the D and G peaks and the second order of the D peak. The G and 2 D Raman peaks change in shape, position and relative intensity with number of graphene layers. This reflects the evolution of the electronic structure and electron–phonon interactions. We then consider the effects of doping on the Raman spectra of graphene. The Fermi energy is tuned by applying a gate-voltage. We show that this induces a stiffening of the Raman G peak for both holes and electrons doping. Thus Raman spectroscopy can be efficiently used to monitor number of layers, quality of layers, doping level and confinement.

5,730 citations

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TL;DR: The realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity is reported—which cannot be explained by weak electron–phonon interactions—in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two sheets of graphene that are twisted relative to each other by a small angle.

Abstract: The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has been studied extensively for decades, but is still not well understood. This lack of theoretical understanding has motivated the development of experimental techniques for studying such behaviour, such as using ultracold atom lattices to simulate quantum materials. Here we report the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity-which cannot be explained by weak electron-phonon interactions-in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two sheets of graphene that are twisted relative to each other by a small angle. For twist angles of about 1.1°-the first 'magic' angle-the electronic band structure of this 'twisted bilayer graphene' exhibits flat bands near zero Fermi energy, resulting in correlated insulating states at half-filling. Upon electrostatic doping of the material away from these correlated insulating states, we observe tunable zero-resistance states with a critical temperature of up to 1.7 kelvin. The temperature-carrier-density phase diagram of twisted bilayer graphene is similar to that of copper oxides (or cuprates), and includes dome-shaped regions that correspond to superconductivity. Moreover, quantum oscillations in the longitudinal resistance of the material indicate the presence of small Fermi surfaces near the correlated insulating states, in analogy with underdoped cuprates. The relatively high superconducting critical temperature of twisted bilayer graphene, given such a small Fermi surface (which corresponds to a carrier density of about 1011 per square centimetre), puts it among the superconductors with the strongest pairing strength between electrons. Twisted bilayer graphene is a precisely tunable, purely carbon-based, two-dimensional superconductor. It is therefore an ideal material for investigations of strongly correlated phenomena, which could lead to insights into the physics of high-critical-temperature superconductors and quantum spin liquids.

3,452 citations

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Abstract: In 5d transition metal oxides such as the iridates, novel properties arise from the interplay of electron correlations and spin-orbit interactions. We investigate the electronic structure of the pyrochlore iridates, (such as Y$_{2}$Ir$_{2}$O$_{7}$) using density functional theory, LDA+U method, and effective low energy models. A remarkably rich phase diagram emerges on tuning the correlation strength U. The Ir magnetic moment are always found to be non-collinearly ordered. However, the ground state changes from a magnetic metal at weak U, to a Mott insulator at large U. Most interestingly, the intermediate U regime is found to be a Dirac semi-metal, with vanishing density of states at the Fermi energy. It also exhibits topological properties - manifested by special surface states in the form of Fermi arcs, that connect the bulk Dirac points. This Dirac phase, a three dimensional analog of graphene, is proposed as the ground state of Y$_{2}$Ir$_{2}$O$_{7}$ and related compounds. A narrow window of magnetic `axion' insulator, with axion parameter $\theta=\pi$, may also be present at intermediate U. An applied magnetic field induces ferromagnetic order and a metallic ground state.

2,573 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown experimentally that when this angle is close to the ‘magic’ angle the electronic band structure near zero Fermi energy becomes flat, owing to strong interlayer coupling, and these flat bands exhibit insulating states at half-filling, which are not expected in the absence of correlations between electrons.

Abstract: A van der Waals heterostructure is a type of metamaterial that consists of vertically stacked two-dimensional building blocks held together by the van der Waals forces between the layers. This design means that the properties of van der Waals heterostructures can be engineered precisely, even more so than those of two-dimensional materials. One such property is the 'twist' angle between different layers in the heterostructure. This angle has a crucial role in the electronic properties of van der Waals heterostructures, but does not have a direct analogue in other types of heterostructure, such as semiconductors grown using molecular beam epitaxy. For small twist angles, the moire pattern that is produced by the lattice misorientation between the two-dimensional layers creates long-range modulation of the stacking order. So far, studies of the effects of the twist angle in van der Waals heterostructures have concentrated mostly on heterostructures consisting of monolayer graphene on top of hexagonal boron nitride, which exhibit relatively weak interlayer interaction owing to the large bandgap in hexagonal boron nitride. Here we study a heterostructure consisting of bilayer graphene, in which the two graphene layers are twisted relative to each other by a certain angle. We show experimentally that, as predicted theoretically, when this angle is close to the 'magic' angle the electronic band structure near zero Fermi energy becomes flat, owing to strong interlayer coupling. These flat bands exhibit insulating states at half-filling, which are not expected in the absence of correlations between electrons. We show that these correlated states at half-filling are consistent with Mott-like insulator states, which can arise from electrons being localized in the superlattice that is induced by the moire pattern. These properties of magic-angle-twisted bilayer graphene heterostructures suggest that these materials could be used to study other exotic many-body quantum phases in two dimensions in the absence of a magnetic field. The accessibility of the flat bands through electrical tunability and the bandwidth tunability through the twist angle could pave the way towards more exotic correlated systems, such as unconventional superconductors and quantum spin liquids.

2,052 citations

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Abstract: The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the $s$-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

1,630 citations