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Ferric

About: Ferric is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 15332 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 330925 citation(s).


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that the conjugate acid of peroxynitrite, peroxlynitrous acid (ONOOH), and/or its decomposition products, i.e., .OH and nitrogen dioxide (.NO2), initiate lipid peroxidation without the requirement of iron.
Abstract: Endothelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and neuronal cells generate superoxide (O2-) and nitric oxide (.NO) which can combine to form peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Peroxynitrite, known to oxidize sulfhydryls and to yield products indicative of hydroxyl radical (.OH) reaction with deoxyribose and dimethyl sulfoxide, is shown herein to induce membrane lipid peroxidation. Peroxynitrite addition to soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomes resulted in malondialdehyde and conjugated diene formation, as well as oxygen consumption. Lipid peroxidation was greater at acidic and neutral pH, with no significant lipid peroxidation occurring above pH 9.5. Addition of ferrous (Fe+2) or ferric (Fe+3) iron did not enhance lipid peroxide formation over that attributable to peroxynitrite alone. Diethylenetetraminepentacetic acid (DTPA) or iron removal from solutions by ion-exchange chromatography decreased conjugated diene formation by 25-50%. Iron did not play an essential role in initiating lipid peroxidation, since DTPA and iron depletion of reaction systems were only partially inhibitory. In contrast, desferrioxamine had an even greater concentration-dependent inhibitory effect, completely abolishing lipid peroxidation at 200 microM. The strong inhibitory effect of desferrioxamine on lipid peroxidation was due to direct reaction with peroxynitrous acid in addition to iron chelation. We conclude that the conjugate acid of peroxynitrite, peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), and/or its decomposition products, i.e., .OH and nitrogen dioxide (.NO2), initiate lipid peroxidation without the requirement of iron. These observations demonstrate a potential mechanism contributing to O2-(-)and .NO-mediated cytotoxicity.

2,144 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) compounds were investigated by XPS to determine the usefulness of calculated multiplet peaks to fit high-resolution iron 2p3/2 spectra from high-spin compounds. The multiplets were found to fit most spectra well, particularly when contributions attributed to surface peaks and shake-up satellites were included. This information was useful for fitting of the complex Fe 2p3/2 spectra for Fe3O4 where both Fe2+ and Fe3+ species are present. It was found that as the ionic bond character of the iron —ligand bond increased, the binding energy associated with either the ferrous or ferric 2p3/2 photoelectron peak also increased. This was determined to be due to the decrease in shielding of the iron cation by the more increasingly electronegative ligands. It was also observed that the difference in energy between a high-spin iron 2p3/2 peak and its corresponding shake-up satellite peak increased as the electronegativity of the ligand increased. The extrinsic loss spectra for ion oxides are also reported; these are as characteristic of each species as are the photoelectron peaks. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2,126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The expression of the iron homeostatic machinery is subject to iron-dependent global control ensuring that iron acquisition, storage and consumption are geared to iron availability and that intracellular levels of free iron do not reach toxic levels.
Abstract: Iron is essential to virtually all organisms, but poses problems of toxicity and poor solubility. Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counter the problems imposed by their iron dependence, allowing them to achieve effective iron homeostasis under a range of iron regimes. Highly efficient iron acquisition systems are used to scavenge iron from the environment under iron-restricted conditions. In many cases, this involves the secretion and internalisation of extracellular ferric chelators called siderophores. Ferrous iron can also be directly imported by the G protein-like transporter, FeoB. For pathogens, host–iron complexes (transferrin, lactoferrin, haem, haemoglobin) are directly used as iron sources. Bacterial iron storage proteins (ferritin, bacterioferritin) provide intracellular iron reserves for use when external supplies are restricted, and iron detoxification proteins (Dps) are employed to protect the chromosome from iron-induced free radical damage. There is evidence that bacteria control their iron requirements in response to iron availability by down-regulating the expression of iron proteins during iron-restricted growth. And finally, the expression of the iron homeostatic machinery is subject to iron-dependent global control ensuring that iron acquisition, storage and consumption are geared to iron availability and that intracellular levels of free iron do not reach toxic levels.

2,059 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Iron has the capacity to accept and donate electrons readily, interconverting between ferric (Fe2+) and ferrous (Fe3+) forms, which makes it a useful component of cytochromes, oxygen-binding molecules, and many enzymes.
Abstract: Iron has the capacity to accept and donate electrons readily, interconverting between ferric (Fe2+) and ferrous (Fe3+) forms. This capability makes it a useful component of cytochromes, oxygen-bind...

1,930 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that iron reduction can outcompete methanogenic food chains for sediment organic matter when amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides are available in anaerobic sediments, and the transfer of electrons from organic matter to ferric iron can be a major pathway for organic matter decomposition.
Abstract: The potential for ferric iron reduction with fermentable substrates, fermentation products, and complex organic matter as electron donors was investigated with sediments from freshwater and brackish water sites in the Potomac River Estuary. In enrichments with glucose and hematite, iron reduction was a minor pathway for electron flow, and fermentation products accumulated. The substitution of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide for hematite in glucose enrichments increased iron reduction 50-fold because the fermentation products could also be metabolized with concomitant iron reduction. Acetate, hydrogen, propionate, butyrate, ethanol, methanol, and trimethylamine stimulated the reduction of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide in enrichments inoculated with sediments but not in uninoculated or heat-killed controls. The addition of ferric iron inhibited methane production in sediments. The degree of inhibition of methane production by various forms of ferric iron was related to the effectiveness of these ferric compounds as electron acceptors for the metabolism of acetate. The addition of acetate or hydrogen relieved the inhibition of methane production by ferric iron. The decrease of electron equivalents proceeding to methane in sediments supplemented with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides was compensated for by a corresponding increase of electron equivalents in ferrous iron. These results indicate that iron reduction can outcompete methanogenic food chains for sediment organic matter. Thus, when amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides are available in anaerobic sediments, the transfer of electrons from organic matter to ferric iron can be a major pathway for organic matter decomposition.

1,294 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202217
2021291
2020413
2019573
2018597
2017586