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Ferroelectric ceramics

About: Ferroelectric ceramics is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4458 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 117294 citation(s).

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Abstract: Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves. Materials based on two compositional systems, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate, have dominated the field throughout their history. The more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics, such as medical ultrasonic composites, high-displacement piezoelectric actuators (Moonies, RAINBOWS), photostrictors, and thin and thick films for piezoelectric and integrated-circuit applications have served to keep the industry young amidst its growing maturity. Various ceramic formulations, their form (bulk, films), fabrication, function (properties), and future are described in relation to their ferroelectric nature and specific areas of application.

3,143 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We Study cracks either in piezoelectrics, or on interfaces between piezoelectrics and other materials such as metal electrodes or polymer matrices. The projected applications include ferroelectric actuators operating statically or cyclically, over the major portion of the samples, in the linear regime of the constitutive curve, but the elevated field around defects causes the materials to undergo hysteresis locally. The fracture mechanics viewpoint is adopted—that is, except for a region localized at the crack tip, the materials are taken to be linearly piezoelectric. The problem thus breaks into two subproblems: (i) determining the macroscopic field regarding the crack tip as a physically structureless point, and (ii) considering the hysteresis and other irreversible processes near the crack tip at a relevant microscopic level. The first Subproblem, which prompts a phenomenological fracture theory, receives a thorough investigation in this paper. Griffith's energy accounting is extended to include energy change due to both deformation and polarization. Four modes of square root singularities are identified at the tip of a crack in a homogeneous piezoelectric. A new type of singularity is discovered around interface crack tips. Specifically, the singularities in general form two pairs: r1/2±ieand r1/2±ie, where e. and k are real numbers depending on the constitutive constants. Also solved is a class of boundary value problems involving many cracks on the interface between half-spaces. Fracture mechanics are established for ferroelectric ceramics under smallscale hysteresis conditions, which facilitates the experimental study of fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth under combined mechanical and electrical loading. Both poled and unpoled fcrroelectrie ceramics are discussed.

1,081 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Transparent ferroelectric ceramic materials suitable for a variety of electrooptic applications were found in the quaternary (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 system. These PLZT materials are prepared from mixed oxides and hot-pressed typically at 1100°C for 16 h at 2000 psi. Modifying the lead zirconate-titanate system with lanthana linearly reduces the Curie point with increasing lanthana. Transmission measurements in the visible and infrared show that these materials exhibit a nearly constant response from the absorption edge of 0.37 μ to ∼6 μm. The highest transmission values, essentially 100% (neglecting reflection losses of ∼18%) for thin polished plates, were noted for compositions containing 8 at.% La or more. Specific compositions within the system display electrooptic memory or conventional linear or quadratic electrooptic effects; on the basis of the magnitude of the electrooptic effects, they compare quite favorably with single crystals.

976 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Single-phased ferroelectromagnet BiFeO3 ceramics with high resistivity were synthesized by a rapid liquid phase sintering technique. Saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature in the ceramics sintered at 880 °C for 450 s. The spontaneous polarization, remnant polarization, and the coercive field are 8.9 μC/cm2, 4.0 μC/cm2, and 39 kV/cm, respectively, under an applied field of 100 kV/cm. It is proposed that the formation of Fe2+ and an oxygen deficiency leading to the higher leakage can be greatly suppressed by the very high heating rate, short sintering period, and liquid phase sintering technique. The latter was also found effective in increasing the density of the ceramics. The sintering technique developed in this work is expected to be useful in synthesizing other ceramics from multivalent or volatile starting materials.

907 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A previously unreported ferroelectric phase has been discovered in a highly homogeneous sample of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 by high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction measurements. At ambient temperature the sample has tetragonal symmetry (at=4.037 A, ct=4.138 A), and transforms below ∼250 K into a phase which, unexpectedly, has monoclinic symmetry (am=5.717 A, bm=5.703 A, cm=4.143 A, β=90.53°, at 20 K). The intensity data strongly indicate that the polar axis lies in the monoclinic ac plane close to the pseudocubic [111] direction, which would be an example of the species m3m(12)A2Fm predicted on symmetry grounds by Shuvalov.

863 citations

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