About: Fertilizer is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 60141 publications have been published within this topic receiving 609241 citations. The topic is also known as: fertiliser & fertilizers.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1982
TL;DR: In this article, the Soil as a Plant Nutrient Medium is discussed and the importance of water relations in plant growth and crop production, and the role of water as a plant nutrient medium.
Abstract: 1. Plant Nutrients. 2. The Soil as a Plant Nutrient Medium. 3. Nutrient Uptake and Assimilation. 4. Plant Water Relationships. 5. Plant Growth and Crop Production. 6. Fertilizer Application. 7. Nitrogen. 8. Sulphur. 9. Phosphorus. 10. Potassium. 11. Calcium. 12. Magnesium. 13. Iron. 14. Manganese. 15. Zinc. 16. Copper. 17. Molybdenum. 18. Boron. 19. Further Elements of Importance. 20. Elements with More Toxic Effects. General Readings. References. Index.
TL;DR: Examination of grain yields and N loss pathways in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment.
Abstract: Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged rice/upland wheat in the Taihu region of east China versus irrigated wheat/rainfed maize on the North China Plain. When compared with knowledge-based optimum N fertilization with 30– 60% N savings, we found that current agricultural N practices with 550–600 kg of N per hectare fertilizer annually do not significantly increase crop yields but do lead to about 2 times larger N losses to the environment. The higher N loss rates and lower N retention rates indicate little utilization of residual N by the succeeding crop in rice/wheat systems in comparison with wheat/maize systems. Periodic waterlogging of upland systems caused large N losses by denitrification in the Taihu region. Calcareous soils and concentrated summer rainfall resulted in ammonia volatilization (19% for wheat and 24% for maize) and nitrate leaching being the main N loss pathways in wheat/maize systems. More than 2-fold increases in atmospheric deposition and irrigation water N reflect heavy air and water pollution and these have become important N sources to agricultural ecosystems. A better N balance can be achieved without sacrificing crop yields but significantly reducing environmental risk by adopting optimum N fertilization techniques, controlling the primary N loss pathways, and improving the performance of the agricultural Extension Service. intensive agriculture synthetic N fertilizer denitrification nitrate leaching N deposition
TL;DR: In the first experiment, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) was planted in pots, while in the second experiment lysimeters were used to quantify water and nutrient leaching from soil cropped to rice (Oryza sativa L) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Soil fertility and leaching losses of nutrients were compared between a Fimic Anthrosol and a Xanthic Ferralsol from Central Amazonia The Anthrosol was a relict soil from pre-Columbian settlements with high organic C containing large proportions of black carbon It was further tested whether charcoal additions among other organic and inorganic applications could produce similarly fertile soils as these archaeological Anthrosols In the first experiment, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp) was planted in pots, while in the second experiment lysimeters were used to quantify water and nutrient leaching from soil cropped to rice (Oryza sativa L) The Anthrosol showed significantly higher P, Ca, Mn, and Zn availability than the Ferralsol increasing biomass production of both cowpea and rice by 38–45% without fertilization (P<005) The soil N contents were also higher in the Anthrosol but the wide C-to-N ratios due to high soil C contents led to immobilization of N Despite the generally high nutrient availability, nutrient leaching was minimal in the Anthrosol, providing an explanation for their sustainable fertility However, when inorganic nutrients were applied to the Anthrosol, nutrient leaching exceeded the one found in the fertilized Ferralsol Charcoal additions significantly increased plant growth and nutrition While N availability in the Ferralsol decreased similar to the Anthrosol, uptake of P, K, Ca, Zn, and Cu by the plants increased with higher charcoal additions Leaching of applied fertilizer N was significantly reduced by charcoal, and Ca and Mg leaching was delayed In both the Ferralsol with added charcoal and the Anthrosol, nutrient availability was elevated with the exception of N while nutrient leaching was comparatively low
TL;DR: The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) linked with advanced research programs at universities and research institutes is uniquely positioned to refine fertilizer N use in the world via the extension of improved NUE hybrids and cultivars and management practices in both the developed and developing world.
Abstract: Worldwide, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for cereal production (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.; corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L. and O. glaberrima Steud.; barley, Hordeum vulgare L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.; oat, Avena sativa L.; and rye, Secale cereale L.) is approximately 33%. The unaccounted 67% represents a $15.9 billion annual loss of N fertilizer (assuming fertilizer-soil equilibrium). Loss of fertilizer N results from gaseous plant emission, soil denitrification, surface runoff, volatilization, and leaching. Increased cereal NUE is unlikely, unless a systems approach is implemented that uses varieties with high harvest index, incorporated NH₄-N fertilizer, application of prescribed rates consistent with in-field variability using sensor-based systems within production fields, low N rates applied at flowering, and forage production systems. Furthermore, increased cereal NUE must accompany increased yields needed to feed a growing world population that has yet to benefit from the promise of N₂-fixing cereal crops. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) linked with advanced research programs at universities and research institutes is uniquely positioned to refine fertilizer N use in the world via the extension of improved NUE hybrids and cultivars and management practices in both the developed and developing world. Contribution from the Okla. Agric. Exp. Stn.
TL;DR: This review focuses on the diversity of PSM, mechanism of P solubilization, role of various phosphatases, impact of various factors on P solubsility, present and future scenario of their use and potential for application of this knowledge in managing a sustainable environmental system.
Abstract: Phosphorus is the second important key element after nitrogen as a mineral nutrient in terms of quantitative plant requirement. Although abundant in soils, in both organic and inorganic forms, its availability is restricted as it occurs mostly in insoluble forms. The P content in average soil is about 0.05% (w/w) but only 0.1% of the total P is available to plant because of poor solubility and its fixation in soil (Illmer and Schinner, Soil Biol Biochem 27:257-263, 1995). An adequate supply of phosphorus during early phases of plant development is important for laying down the primordia of plant reproductive parts. It plays significant role in increasing root ramification and strength thereby imparting vitality and disease resistance capacity to plant. It also helps in seed formation and in early maturation of crops like cereals and legumes. Poor availability or deficiency of phosphorus (P) markedly reduces plant size and growth. Phosphorus accounts about 0.2 - 0.8% of the plant dry weight. To satisfy crop nutritional requirements, P is usually added to soil as chemical P fertilizer, however synthesis of chemical P fertilizer is highly energy intensive processes, and has long term impacts on the environment in terms of eutrophication, soil fertilility depletion, carbon footprint. Moreover, plants can use only a small amount of this P since 75–90% of added P is precipitated by metal–cation complexes, and rapidly becomes fixed in soils. Such environmental concerns have led to the search for sustainable way of P nutrition of crops. In this regards phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) have been seen as best eco-friendly means for P nutrition of crop. Although, several bacterial (pseudomonads and bacilli) and fungal strains (Aspergilli and Penicillium) have been identified as PSM their performance under in situ conditions is not reliable and therefore needs to be improved by using either genetically modified strains or co-inoculation techniques. This review focuses on the diversity of PSM, mechanism of P solubilization, role of various phosphatases, impact of various factors on P solubilization, the present and future scenario of their use and potential for application of this knowledge in managing a sustainable environmental system.
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