About: Fetus is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 21567 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 646380 citation(s). The topic is also known as: foetus & fœtus.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The birth of lambs from differentiated fetal and adult cells confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible modification of genetic material required for development to term and reinforces previous speculation that by inducing donor cells to become quiescent it will be possible to obtain normal development from a wide variety of differentiated cells.
Abstract: Fertilization of mammalian eggs is followed by successive cell divisions and progressive differentiation, first into the early embryo and subsequently into all of the cell types that make up the adult animal. Transfer of a single nucleus at a specific stage of development, to an enucleated unfertilized egg, provided an opportunity to investigate whether cellular differentiation to that stage involved irreversible genetic modification. The first offspring to develop from a differentiated cell were born after nuclear transfer from an embryo-derived cell line that had been induced to become quiescent. Using the same procedure, we now report the birth of live lambs from three new cell populations established from adult mammary gland, fetus and embryo. The fact that a lamb was derived from an adult cell confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible modification of genetic material required for development to term. The birth of lambs from differentiated fetal and adult cells also reinforces previous speculation that by inducing donor cells to become quiescent it will be possible to obtain normal development from a wide variety of differentiated cells.
10 Apr 1993-The Lancet
TL;DR: This paper shows how fetal undernutrition at different stages of gestation can be linked to these patterns of early growth in babies who are small at birth or during infancy.
Abstract: Babies who are small at birth or during infancy have increased rates of cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes as adults. Some of these babies have low birthweights, some are small in relation to the size of their placentas, some are thin at birth, and some are short at birth and fail to gain weight in infancy. This paper shows how fetal undernutrition at different stages of gestation can be linked to these patterns of early growth. The fetuses' adaptations to undernutrition are associated with changes in the concentrations of fetal and placental hormones. Persisting changes in the levels of hormone secretion, and in the sensitivity of tissues to them, may link fetal undernutrition with abnormal structure, function, and disease in adult life.
01 Jan 1973
TL;DR: In this article, the development of the developing human can be traced to the beginning of human development: first week 3. Formation of Bilaminar Embryonic Disc (BED) and the formation of Germ Layers and early Tissue and Organ Differentiation: Third week 5. Organogenetic Period: Fourth to Eighth weeks 6. The Fetal Period: Ninth week to birth 7. Placenta and Fetal Membranes 8. Body Cavities, Mesenteries, and Diaphragm
Abstract: 1. Introduction to The Developing Human 2. The Beginning of Human Development: First Week 3. Formation of Bilaminar Embryonic Disc: Second Week 4. Formation of Germ Layers and Early Tissue and Organ Differentiation: Third Week 5. Organogenetic Period: Fourth to Eighth Weeks 6. The Fetal Period: Ninth Week to Birth 7. Placenta and Fetal Membranes 8. Body Cavities, Mesenteries, and Diaphragm 9. The Pharyngeal Apparatus 10. The Respiratory System 11. The Digestive System 12. The Urogenital System 13. The Cardiovascular System 14. The Skeletal System 15. The Muscular System 16. The Limbs 17. The Nervous System 18. The Eye and Ear 19. The Integumentary System 20. Congenital Anatomical Anomalies or Human Birth Defects 21. Common Signaling Pathways Used During Development Appendix: Discussion of Clinically Oriented Problems
TL;DR: In this paper, a real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed to measure the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum, and the results showed that fetal DNA is present in high concentrations in maternal placenta, reaching a mean of 25.4 genome equivalents/ml (range 3.3-69.4) in early pregnancy and 292.2 genome equivalents /ml(range 76.9-769) in late pregnancy.
Abstract: Summary We have developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay to measure the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum. Our results show that fetal DNA is present in high concentrations in maternal plasma, reaching a mean of 25.4 genome equivalents/ml (range 3.3–69.4) in early pregnancy and 292.2 genome equivalents/ml (range 76.9–769) in late pregnancy. These concentrations correspond to 3.4% (range 0.39%–11.9%) and 6.2% (range 2.33%–11.4%) of the total plasma DNA in early and late pregnancy, respectively. Sequential follow-up study of women who conceived by in vitro fertilization shows that fetal DNA can be detected in maternal serum as early as the 7th wk of gestation and that it then increases in concentration as pregnancy progresses. These data suggest that fetal DNA can be readily detected in maternal plasma and serum and may be a valuable source of material for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.
01 Feb 2004-Nature Immunology
TL;DR: An alloantigen-independent, systemic expansion of the maternal CD25+ T cell pool during pregnancy is demonstrated and it is shown that this population contains dominant regulatory T cell activity.
Abstract: Pregnancy constitutes a major challenge to the maternal immune system, as it has to tolerate the persistence of paternal alloantigen Although localized mechanisms contribute to fetal evasion from immune attack, maternal alloreactive lymphocytes persist We demonstrate here an alloantigen-independent, systemic expansion of the maternal CD25+ T cell pool during pregnancy and show that this population contains dominant regulatory T cell activity In addition to their function in suppressing autoimmune responses, maternal regulatory T cells suppressed an aggressive allogeneic response directed against the fetus Their absence led to a failure of gestation due to immunological rejection of the fetus
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