About: Fibril is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3130 publications have been published within this topic receiving 172604 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Using electron microscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on fibrils formed by the 40-residue β-amyloid peptide of Alzheimer's disease (Aβ1–40), it is shown that different fibril morphologies have different underlying molecular structures, that the predominant structure can be controlled by subtle variations infibril growth conditions, and that both morphology and molecular structure are self-propagating when fibrs grow from preformed seeds.
Abstract: Amyloid fibrils commonly exhibit multiple distinct morphologies in electron microscope and atomic force microscope images, often within a single image field. By using electron microscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on fibrils formed by the 40-residue beta-amyloid peptide of Alzheimer's disease (Abeta(1-40)), we show that different fibril morphologies have different underlying molecular structures, that the predominant structure can be controlled by subtle variations in fibril growth conditions, and that both morphology and molecular structure are self-propagating when fibrils grow from preformed seeds. Different Abeta(1-40) fibril morphologies also have significantly different toxicities in neuronal cell cultures. These results have implications for the mechanism of amyloid formation, the phenomenon of strains in prion diseases, the role of amyloid fibrils in amyloid diseases, and the development of amyloid-based nano-materials.
TL;DR: Data demonstrate that protocols developed to produce oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ-(1–42) are useful in distinguishing the structural and functional differences between A β-(1-42) and Aβ-1–40 and genetic mutations of Aβ.
Abstract: Genetic evidence predicts a causative role for amyloid-beta (A beta) in Alzheimer's disease. Recent debate has focused on whether fibrils (amyloid) or soluble oligomers of A beta are the active species that contribute to neurodegeneration and dementia. We developed two aggregation protocols for the consistent production of stable oligomeric or fibrillar preparations of A beta-(1-42). Here we report that oligomers inhibit neuronal viability 10-fold more than fibrils and approximately 40-fold more than unaggregated peptide, with oligomeric A beta-(1-42)-induced inhibition significant at 10 nm. Under A beta-(1-42) oligomer- and fibril-forming conditions, A beta-(1-40) remains predominantly as unassembled monomer and had significantly less effect on neuronal viability than preparations of A beta-(1-42). We applied the aggregation protocols developed for wild type A beta-(1-42) to A beta-(1-42) with the Dutch (E22Q) or Arctic (E22G) mutations. Oligomeric preparations of the mutations exhibited extensive protofibril and fibril formation, respectively, but were not consistently different from wild type A beta-(1-42) in terms of inhibition of neuronal viability. However, fibrillar preparations of the mutants appeared larger and induced significantly more inhibition of neuronal viability than wild type A beta-(1-42) fibril preparations. These data demonstrate that protocols developed to produce oligomeric and fibrillar A beta-(1-42) are useful in distinguishing the structural and functional differences between A beta-(1-42) and A beta-(1-40) and genetic mutations of A beta-(1-42).
TL;DR: Preliminary evidence from invertebrates is included which suggests that the principles for bipolar fibril assembly were established at least 500 million years ago, and how mature fibrils are assembled from early fibrILS is reviewed.
Abstract: Collagen is most abundant in animal tissues as very long fibrils with a characteristic axial periodic structure. The fibrils provide the major biomechanical scaffold for cell attachment and anchorage of macromolecules, allowing the shape and form of tissues to be defined and maintained. How the fibrils are formed from their monomeric precursors is the primary concern of this review. Collagen fibril formation is basically a self-assembly process (i.e. one which is to a large extent determined by the intrinsic properties of the collagen molecules themselves) but it is also sensitive to cell-mediated regulation, particularly in young or healing tissues. Recent attention has been focused on "early fibrils' or "fibril segments' of approximately 10 microns in length which appear to be intermediates in the formation of mature fibrils that can grow to be hundreds of micrometers in length. Data from several laboratories indicate that these early fibrils can be unipolar (with all molecules pointing in the same direction) or bipolar (in which the orientation of collagen molecules reverses at a single location along the fibril). The occurrence of such early fibrils has major implications for tissue morphogenesis and repair. In this article we review the current understanding of the origin of unipolar and bipolar fibrils, and how mature fibrils are assembled from early fibrils. We include preliminary evidence from invertebrates which suggests that the principles for bipolar fibril assembly were established at least 500 million years ago.
TL;DR: The results indicate that beta A neurotoxicity requires fibril formation, and suggest that a common cytopathic effect of amyloid fibrils may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and other amyloidsoses.
Abstract: beta-Amyloid (beta A) is normally produced as a nontoxic soluble peptide. In Alzheimer disease, beta A aggregates and accumulates in the brain as inert diffuse plaques or compact plaques associated with neurodegenerative changes. To determine the relationship of neurotoxicity to the physical state of beta A, we created (i) nonamyloidogenic amorphous aggregates of beta A [amorphous beta A (Am-beta A)] analogous to diffuse plaques and (ii) amyloidogenic fibrils of beta A [fibrillar beta A (Fib-beta A)] analogous to compact plaques. In primary rat hippocampal culture, Fib-beta A was neurotoxic, whereas Am-beta A was not toxic. Fib-beta A caused significant loss of synapses in viable neurons, while Am-beta A had no effect on synapse number. The amyloid fibril-binding dye Congo red inhibited Fib-beta A neurotoxicity by inhibiting fibril formation or by binding to preformed fibrils. Congo red also inhibited the pancreatic islet cell toxicity of diabetes-associated amylin, another type of amyloid fibril. These results indicate that beta A neurotoxicity requires fibril formation. These findings and our previous demonstration that amylin fibrils are toxic suggest that a common cytopathic effect of amyloid fibrils may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and other amyloidoses.
TL;DR: The histologic benzothiazole dyes thioflavin S and thioFLavin T under the appropriate conditions selectively stain amyloid structures in a number of pathological settings, as does the diazobenzidine sulfonate dye, Congo red, which is also birefringent when bound to fibrils.
Abstract: Publisher Summary Despite the presence of a significant amount of carbohydrate in these fibrils, the staining reaction was eventually shown to be because of the protein component. The histologic benzothiazole dyes thioflavin S (ThS) and thioflavin T (ThT) under the appropriate conditions selectively stain amyloid structures in a number of pathological settings, as does the diazobenzidine sulfonate dye, Congo red, which is also birefringent when bound to fibrils. Phorwhite BBU, Sirius Red, and several other fluorescent and nonfluorescent aromatic molecules also show this property. Investigation of the amyloid fibril formation process requires not only the ability to distinguish the characteristic amyloid B-sheet structure from amorphous aggregates of the monomer or nonamyloid fibril forms of the precursor protein, but quantitation of the amyloid form as well. Congo red and thioflavin T undergo characteristic spectral alterations on binding to a variety of amyloid fibrils that do not occur on binding to the precursor polypeptides, monomers, or amorphous aggregates of peptide. Both dyes have been adapted to in vitro measurements of amyloid fibril formation.
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