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Field-effect transistor

About: Field-effect transistor is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 56755 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1035049 citation(s). The topic is also known as: FET & unipolar transistor.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 10(5) and well-developed current saturation in the I-V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ∼ 1,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) obtained for a thickness of ∼ 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

5,801 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1998-Nature
Abstract: The use of individual molecules as functional electronic devices was first proposed in the 1970s (ref 1) Since then, molecular electronics2,3 has attracted much interest, particularly because it could lead to conceptually new miniaturization strategies in the electronics and computer industry The realization of single-molecule devices has remained challenging, largely owing to difficulties in achieving electrical contact to individual molecules Recent advances in nanotechnology, however, have resulted in electrical measurements on single molecules4,5,6,7 Here we report the fabrication of a field-effect transistor—a three-terminal switching device—that consists of one semiconducting8,9,10 single-wall carbon nanotube11,12 connected to two metal electrodes By applying a voltage to a gate electrode, the nanotube can be switched from a conducting to an insulating state We have previously reported5 similar behaviour for a metallic single-wall carbon nanotube operated at extremely low temperatures The present device, in contrast, operates at room temperature, thereby meeting an important requirement for potential practical applications Electrical measurements on the nanotube transistor indicate that its operation characteristics can be qualitatively described by the semiclassical band-bending models currently used for traditional semiconductor devices The fabrication of the three-terminal switching device at the level of a single molecule represents an important step towards molecular electronics

5,147 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ali Javey1, Jing Guo2, Qian Wang1, Mark Lundstrom2, Hongjie Dai1 
07 Aug 2003-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that contacting semiconducting single-walled nanotubes by palladium, a noble metal with high work function and good wetting interactions with nanotube, greatly reduces or eliminates the barriers for transport through the valence band of nanot tubes.
Abstract: A common feature of the single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors fabricated to date has been the presence of a Schottky barrier at the nanotube–metal junctions1,2,3. These energy barriers severely limit transistor conductance in the ‘ON’ state, and reduce the current delivery capability—a key determinant of device performance. Here we show that contacting semiconducting single-walled nanotubes by palladium, a noble metal with high work function and good wetting interactions with nanotubes, greatly reduces or eliminates the barriers for transport through the valence band of nanotubes. In situ modification of the electrode work function by hydrogen is carried out to shed light on the nature of the contacts. With Pd contacts, the ‘ON’ states of semiconducting nanotubes can behave like ohmically contacted ballistic metallic tubes, exhibiting room-temperature conductance near the ballistic transport limit of 4e2/h (refs 4–6), high current-carrying capability (∼25 µA per tube), and Fabry–Perot interferences5 at low temperatures. Under high voltage operation, the current saturation appears to be set by backscattering of the charge carriers by optical phonons. High-performance ballistic nanotube field-effect transistors with zero or slightly negative Schottky barriers are thus realized.

3,008 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
11 Jun 2009-Nature
TL;DR: This work demonstrates a gate-controlled, continuously tunable bandgap of up to 250 meV and suggests novel nanoelectronic and nanophotonic device applications based on graphene that have eluded previous attempts.
Abstract: The electronic bandgap is an intrinsic property of semiconductors and insulators that largely determines their transport and optical properties. As such, it has a central role in modern device physics and technology and governs the operation of semiconductor devices such as p-n junctions, transistors, photodiodes and lasers. A tunable bandgap would be highly desirable because it would allow great flexibility in design and optimization of such devices, in particular if it could be tuned by applying a variable external electric field. However, in conventional materials, the bandgap is fixed by their crystalline structure, preventing such bandgap control. Here we demonstrate the realization of a widely tunable electronic bandgap in electrically gated bilayer graphene. Using a dual-gate bilayer graphene field-effect transistor (FET) and infrared microspectroscopy, we demonstrate a gate-controlled, continuously tunable bandgap of up to 250 meV. Our technique avoids uncontrolled chemical doping and provides direct evidence of a widely tunable bandgap-spanning a spectral range from zero to mid-infrared-that has eluded previous attempts. Combined with the remarkable electrical transport properties of such systems, this electrostatic bandgap control suggests novel nanoelectronic and nanophotonic device applications based on graphene.

2,971 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Oct 2009-Nano Letters
TL;DR: An improved transfer process of large-area graphene grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition is reported on, finding that the transferred graphene films have high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable for transparent conductive electrode applications.
Abstract: Graphene, a two-dimensional monolayer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, has been attracting great interest due to its unique transport properties. One of the promising applications of graphene is as a transparent conductive electrode owing to its high optical transmittance and conductivity. In this paper, we report on an improved transfer process of large-area graphene grown on Cu foils by chemical vapor deposition. The transferred graphene films have high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable for transparent conductive electrode applications. The improved transfer processes will also be of great value for the fabrication of electronic devices such as field effect transistor and bilayer pseudospin field effect transistor devices.

2,852 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202215
2021844
20201,285
20191,435
20181,435
20171,593

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Michael Shur

258 papers, 11.8K citations

Wojciech Knap

128 papers, 4.3K citations

Kangguo Cheng

104 papers, 1.1K citations

Shunpei Yamazaki

93 papers, 1.8K citations

Edward J. Nowak

91 papers, 2.4K citations