Topic

# Filter (signal processing)

About: Filter (signal processing) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 81419 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1015107 citations. The topic is also known as: filter (signal processing).

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

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TL;DR: The theory of edge detection explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround ∇2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells.

Abstract: A theory of edge detection is presented. The analysis proceeds in two parts. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. An appropriate filter for this purpose at a given scale is found to be the second derivative of a Gaussian, and it is shown that, provided some simple conditions are satisfied, these primary filters need not be orientation-dependent. Thus, intensity changes at a given scale are best detected by finding the zero values of delta 2G(x,y)*I(x,y) for image I, where G(x,y) is a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and delta 2 is the Laplacian. The intensity changes thus discovered in each of the channels are then represented by oriented primitives called zero-crossing segments, and evidence is given that this representation is complete. (2) Intensity changes in images arise from surface discontinuities or from reflectance or illumination boundaries, and these all have the property that they are spatially. Because of this, the zero-crossing segments from the different channels are not independent, and rules are deduced for combining them into a description of the image. This description is called the raw primal sketch. The theory explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround delta 2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells (see Marr & Ullman 1979).

6,893 citations

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TL;DR: The effect of the added white noise is to provide a uniform reference frame in the time–frequency space; therefore, the added noise collates the portion of the signal of comparable scale in one IMF.

Abstract: A new Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is presented. This new approach consists of sifting an ensemble of white noise-added signal (data) and treats the mean as the final true result. Finite, not infinitesimal, amplitude white noise is necessary to force the ensemble to exhaust all possible solutions in the sifting process, thus making the different scale signals to collate in the proper intrinsic mode functions (IMF) dictated by the dyadic filter banks. As EEMD is a time–space analysis method, the added white noise is averaged out with sufficient number of trials; the only persistent part that survives the averaging process is the component of the signal (original data), which is then treated as the true and more physical meaningful answer. The effect of the added white noise is to provide a uniform reference frame in the time–frequency space; therefore, the added noise collates the portion of the signal of comparable scale in one IMF. With this ensemble mean, one can separate scales naturall...

6,437 citations

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28 Jul 1997TL;DR: It is argued that the ease of implementation and more accurate estimation features of the new filter recommend its use over the EKF in virtually all applications.

Abstract: The Kalman Filter (KF) is one of the most widely used methods for tracking and estimation due to its simplicity, optimality, tractability and robustness. However, the application of the KF to nonlinear systems can be difficult. The most common approach is to use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) which simply linearizes all nonlinear models so that the traditional linear Kalman filter can be applied. Although the EKF (in its many forms) is a widely used filtering strategy, over thirty years of experience with it has led to a general consensus within the tracking and control community that it is difficult to implement, difficult to tune, and only reliable for systems which are almost linear on the time scale of the update intervals. In this paper a new linear estimator is developed and demonstrated. Using the principle that a set of discretely sampled points can be used to parameterize mean and covariance, the estimator yields performance equivalent to the KF for linear systems yet generalizes elegantly to nonlinear systems without the linearization steps required by the EKF. We show analytically that the expected performance of the new approach is superior to that of the EKF and, in fact, is directly comparable to that of the second order Gauss filter. The method is not restricted to assuming that the distributions of noise sources are Gaussian. We argue that the ease of implementation and more accurate estimation features of the new filter recommend its use over the EKF in virtually all applications.

5,314 citations

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27 Jun 2016

TL;DR: This paper presents the first convolutional neural network capable of real-time SR of 1080p videos on a single K2 GPU and introduces an efficient sub-pixel convolution layer which learns an array of upscaling filters to upscale the final LR feature maps into the HR output.

Abstract: Recently, several models based on deep neural networks have achieved great success in terms of both reconstruction accuracy and computational performance for single image super-resolution. In these methods, the low resolution (LR) input image is upscaled to the high resolution (HR) space using a single filter, commonly bicubic interpolation, before reconstruction. This means that the super-resolution (SR) operation is performed in HR space. We demonstrate that this is sub-optimal and adds computational complexity. In this paper, we present the first convolutional neural network (CNN) capable of real-time SR of 1080p videos on a single K2 GPU. To achieve this, we propose a novel CNN architecture where the feature maps are extracted in the LR space. In addition, we introduce an efficient sub-pixel convolution layer which learns an array of upscaling filters to upscale the final LR feature maps into the HR output. By doing so, we effectively replace the handcrafted bicubic filter in the SR pipeline with more complex upscaling filters specifically trained for each feature map, whilst also reducing the computational complexity of the overall SR operation. We evaluate the proposed approach using images and videos from publicly available datasets and show that it performs significantly better (+0.15dB on Images and +0.39dB on Videos) and is an order of magnitude faster than previous CNN-based methods.

4,770 citations

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TL;DR: The guided filter is a novel explicit image filter derived from a local linear model that can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter, but it has better behaviors near edges.

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a novel explicit image filter called guided filter. Derived from a local linear model, the guided filter computes the filtering output by considering the content of a guidance image, which can be the input image itself or another different image. The guided filter can be used as an edge-preserving smoothing operator like the popular bilateral filter [1], but it has better behaviors near edges. The guided filter is also a more generic concept beyond smoothing: It can transfer the structures of the guidance image to the filtering output, enabling new filtering applications like dehazing and guided feathering. Moreover, the guided filter naturally has a fast and nonapproximate linear time algorithm, regardless of the kernel size and the intensity range. Currently, it is one of the fastest edge-preserving filters. Experiments show that the guided filter is both effective and efficient in a great variety of computer vision and computer graphics applications, including edge-aware smoothing, detail enhancement, HDR compression, image matting/feathering, dehazing, joint upsampling, etc.

4,730 citations