About: Fin is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 15717 publications have been published within this topic receiving 141357 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, an overview of the swimming mechanisms employed by fish is presented, with a relevant and useful introduction to the existing literature for engineers with an interest in the emerging area of aquatic biomechanisms.
Abstract: Several physico-mechanical designs evolved in fish are currently inspiring robotic devices for propulsion and maneuvering purposes in underwater vehicles. Considering the potential benefits involved, this paper presents an overview of the swimming mechanisms employed by fish. The motivation is to provide a relevant and useful introduction to the existing literature for engineers with an interest in the emerging area of aquatic biomechanisms. The fish swimming types are presented, following the well-established classification scheme and nomenclature originally proposed by Breder. Fish swim either by body and/or caudal fin (BCF) movements or using median and/or paired fin (MPF) propulsion. The latter is generally employed at slow speeds, offering greater maneuverability and better propulsive efficiency, while BCF movements can achieve greater thrust and accelerations. For both BCF and MPF locomotion, specific swimming modes are identified, based on the propulsor and the type of movements (oscillatory or undulatory) employed for thrust generation. Along with general descriptions and kinematic data, the analytical approaches developed to study each swimming mode are also introduced. Particular reference is made to lunate tail propulsion, undulating fins, and labriform (oscillatory pectoral fin) swimming mechanisms, identified as having the greatest potential for exploitation in artificial systems.
01 Jan 1972
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an algorithm for Finned Array Assembly, which is based on linear transformations with simplified constraints and convection coefficients with real constraints, and they show that it achieves the optimum design of Radiating and Convecting-Radiating Fins.
Abstract: Preface. Convection with Simplified Constraints. Convection with Real Constraints. Convective Optimizations. Convection Coefficients. Linear Transformations. Elements of Linear Transformations. Algorithms for Finned Array Assembly. Advanced Array Methods and Array Optimization. Finned Passages. Compact Heat Exchangers. Longitudinal Fin Double-Pipe Exchangers. Transverse High-Fin Exchangers. Fins with Radiation. Optimum Design of Radiating and Convecting-Radiating Fins. Multidimensional Heat Transfer in Fins and Fin Assemblies. Transient Heat Transfer in Extended Surfaces. Periodic Heat Flow in Fins. Boiling From Finned Surfaces. Condensation on Finned Surfaces. Augmentation and Additional Studies. Appendix A: Gamma and Bessel Functions. Appendix B: Matrices and Determinants. References. Author Index. Subject Index.
TL;DR: The observed force balance indicates that DPIV can be used to measure accurately large-scale vorticity in the wake of swimming fishes and is therefore a valuable means of studying unsteady flows produced by animals moving through fluids.
Abstract: Quantifying the locomotor forces experienced by swimming fishes represents a significant challenge because direct measurements of force applied to the aquatic medium are not feasible. However, using the technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), it is possible to quantify the effect of fish fins on water movement and hence to estimate momentum transfer from the animal to the fluid. We used DPIV to visualize water flow in the wake of the pectoral fins of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) swimming at speeds of 0.5-1.5 L s(-)(1), where L is total body length. Velocity fields quantified in three perpendicular planes in the wake of the fins allowed three-dimensional reconstruction of downstream vortex structures. At low swimming speed (0.5 L s(-)(1)), vorticity is shed by each fin during the downstroke and stroke reversal to generate discrete, roughly symmetrical, vortex rings of near-uniform circulation with a central jet of high-velocity flow. At and above the maximum sustainable labriform swimming speed of 1.0 L s(-)(1), additional vorticity appears on the upstroke, indicating the production of linked pairs of rings by each fin. Fluid velocity measured in the vicinity of the fin indicates that substantial spanwise flow during the downstroke may occur as vortex rings are formed. The forces exerted by the fins on the water in three dimensions were calculated from vortex ring orientation and momentum. Mean wake-derived thrust (11.1 mN) and lift (3.2 mN) forces produced by both fins per stride at 0.5 L s(-)(1) were found to match closely empirically determined counter-forces of body drag and weight. Medially directed reaction forces were unexpectedly large, averaging 125 % of the thrust force for each fin. Such large inward forces and a deep body that isolates left- and right-side vortex rings are predicted to aid maneuverability. The observed force balance indicates that DPIV can be used to measure accurately large-scale vorticity in the wake of swimming fishes and is therefore a valuable means of studying unsteady flows produced by animals moving through fluids.
TL;DR: In this article, a 3D-riblet surface with sharp-edged fin-shaped elements arranged in an interlocking array was investigated and the turbulent wall shear stress on this surface was measured using direct force balances.
Abstract: The skin of fast sharks exhibits a rather intriguing three-dimensional rib pattern. Therefore, the question arises whether or not such three-dimensional riblet surfaces may produce an equivalent or even higher drag reduction than straight two-dimensional riblets. Previously, the latter have been shown to reduce turbulent wall shear stress by up to 10%. Hence, the drag reduction by three-dimensional riblet surfaces is investigated experimentally. Our idealized 3D-surface consists of sharp-edged fin-shaped elements arranged in an interlocking array. The turbulent wall shear stress on this surface is measured using direct force balances. In a first attempt, wind tunnel experiments with about 365,000 tiny fin elements per test surface have been carried out. Due to the complexity of the surface manufacturing process, a comprehensive parametric study was not possible. These initial wind tunnel data, however, hinted at an appreciable drag reduction. Subsequently, in order to have a better judgement on the potential of these 3D-surfaces, oil channel experiments are carried out. In our new oil channel, the geometrical dimensions of the fins can be magnified 10 times in size as compared to the initial wind tunnel experiments, i.e., from typically 0.5 mm to 5 mm. For these latter oil channel experiments, novel test plates with variable fin configuration have been manufactured, with 1,920–4,000 fins. This enhanced variability permits measurements with a comparatively large parameter range. As a result of our measurements, it can be concluded, that 3D-riblet surfaces do indeed produce an appreciable drag reduction. We found as much as 7.3% decreased turbulent shear stress, as compared to a smooth reference plate. However, in direct comparison with 2D riblets, the performance of 3D-riblets is still inferior by about 1.7%. On the other hand, it appears conceivable, with a careful design of the fin shape (possibly supported by theory), that this inferiority in performance might be reduced. Nevertheless, at present, it seems to be rather unlikely, that 3D-riblets can significantly outperform 2D-riblets. Finally, one interesting finding remains to be mentioned: The optimum drag reduction for short 3D-riblets occurs at a lower rib height than for longer 3D-riblets or for infinitely long 2D-riblets. The same observation had been made previously on shark scales of different species with differing rib lengths, but no explanation could be given.
TL;DR: In this article, a physics-based model is proposed for a biomimetic robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator, which incorporates both IPMC actuation dynamics and hydrodynamics, and predicts the steady-state cruising speed of the robot under a given periodic actuation voltage.
Abstract: In this paper, a physics-based model is proposed for a biomimetic robotic fish propelled by an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator. Inspired by the biological fin structure, a passive plastic fin is further attached to the IPMC beam. The model incorporates both IPMC actuation dynamics and the hydrodynamics, and predicts the steady-state cruising speed of the robot under a given periodic actuation voltage. The interactions between the plastic fin and the IPMC actuator are also captured in the model. Experimental results have shown that the proposed model is able to predict the motion of robotic fish for different tail dimensions. Since most of the model parameters are expressed in terms of fundamental physical properties and geometric dimensions, the model is expected to be instrumental in optimal design of the robotic fish.
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