About: Fluence is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6156 publications have been published within this topic receiving 94486 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the ablation of metal targets by Ti:sapphire laser radiation and showed that the intensity depends logarithmically on the laser fluence.
Abstract: Ablation of metal targets by Ti:sapphire laser radiation is studied. The ablation depth per pulse is measured for laser pulse durations between 150 fs and 30 ps and fluences ranging from the ablation threshold ∼0.1 J/cm2 up to 10 J/cm2. Two different ablation regimes are observed for the first time. In both cases the ablation depth per pulse depends logarithmically on the laser fluence. A simple theoretical model for a qualitative description of the experimental results is presented.
TL;DR: Observations of the structural evolution of aluminum as it underwent an ultrafast laser–induced solid-liquid phase transition provide an atomic-level description of the melting process, which is best understood as a thermal phase transition under strongly driven conditions.
Abstract: We used 600-femtosecond electron pulses to study the structural evolution of aluminum as it underwent an ultrafast laser–induced solid-liquid phase transition. Real-time observations showed the loss of long-range order that was present in the crystalline phase and the emergence of the liquid structure where only short-range atomic correlations were present; this transition occurred in 3.5picoseconds for thin-film aluminum with an excitation fluence of 70 millijoules per square centimeter. The sensitivity and time resolution were sufficient to capture the time-dependent pair correlation function as the system evolved from the solid to the liquid state. These observations provide an atomic-level description of the melting process, in which the dynamics are best understood as a thermal phase transition under strongly driven conditions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the formation of nearly wavelength-sized laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSss) on single-crystalline silicon upon irradiation with single or multiple femtosecond-laser pulses (pulse duration τ=130
Abstract: The formation of nearly wavelength-sized laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on single-crystalline silicon upon irradiation with single or multiple femtosecond-laser pulses (pulse duration τ=130 fs and central wavelength λ=800 nm) in air is studied experimentally and theoretically. In our theoretical approach, we model the LIPSS formation by combining the generally accepted first-principles theory of Sipe and co-workers with a Drude model in order to account for transient intrapulse changes in the optical properties of the material due to the excitation of a dense electron-hole plasma. Our results are capable to explain quantitatively the spatial periods of the LIPSSs being somewhat smaller than the laser wavelength, their orientation perpendicular to the laser beam polarization, and their characteristic fluence dependence. Moreover, evidence is presented that surface plasmon polaritons play a dominant role during the initial stage of near-wavelength-sized periodic surface structures in fem...
TL;DR: Penetration depth of ultraviolet, visible light and infrared radiation in biological tissue has not previously been adequately measured and its effect on the energy density (fluence) distribution within tissue and thus the treatment efficacy depends upon the illumination geometry and wavelength.
Abstract: Penetration depth of ultraviolet, visible light and infrared radiation in biological tissue has not previously been adequately measured. Risk assessment of typical intense pulsed light and laser intensities, spectral characteristics and the subsequent chemical, physiological and psychological effects of such outputs on vital organs as consequence of inappropriate output use are examined. This technical note focuses on wavelength, illumination geometry and skin tone and their effect on the energy density (fluence) distribution within tissue. Monte Carlo modelling is one of the most widely used stochastic methods for the modelling of light transport in turbid biological media such as human skin. Using custom Monte Carlo simulation software of a multi-layered skin model, fluence distributions are produced for various non-ionising radiation combinations. Fluence distributions were analysed using Matlab mathematical software. Penetration depth increases with increasing wavelength with a maximum penetration depth of 5378 μm calculated. The calculations show that a 10-mm beam width produces a fluence level at target depths of 1–3 mm equal to 73–88% (depending on depth) of the fluence level at the same depths produced by an infinitely wide beam of equal incident fluence. Meaning little additional penetration is achieved with larger spot sizes. Fluence distribution within tissue and thus the treatment efficacy depends upon the illumination geometry and wavelength. To optimise therapeutic techniques, light-tissue interactions must be thoroughly understood and can be greatly supported by the use of mathematical modelling techniques.
TL;DR: In this paper, the process of electron-phonon energy transfer was time resolved and was observed to be 1--4 ps increasing with the laser fluence, and non-equilibrium electron-lattice temperatures were observed.
Abstract: Amplified 150--300-fs laser pulses are applied to monitor the thermal modulation of the transmissivity of thin copper films. Non- equilibrium electron-lattice temperatures are observed. The process of electron-phonon energy transfer was time resolved and was observed to be 1--4 ps increasing with the laser fluence.
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