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Flume

About: Flume is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3565 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 68254 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The effects of shear stress, suspended sediment concentration, and shear strength of bed on the erosion rates of a cohesive bed in an open channel with salt water have been investigated. The deposition rates of suspended cohesive sediment and the patterns of bed erosion have been studied to a lesser extent. For the experimental range the erosion rates were found to be independent of the shear strength of the bed and the concentration of suspended sediment. They depend strongly on the bed shear stress. The minimum shear stresses for initiation of erosion were also found to be independent of the shear strength of bed. There seems to exist a critical velocity for the clay part of suspended sediment, above which all such sediment remains in suspension, whereas even for velocities slightly below this critical limit, the suspended clay deposits rapidly. Scouring occurred predominantly within a well defined narrow and relatively straight zone near the center of the flume.

995 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A series of experiments was performed in a large flume to determine the effect of slope and sediment load on channel patterns. Sediment loads and slopes were closely related, and as slope and sediment loads increased, threshold values of these variables were encountered, at which channel patterns altered significantly. At a very low slope and sediment load, the channels remained straight, but at a discharge of 0.15 cfs, a meandering-thalweg channel formed at slopes greater than 0.002. With increased slope and sediment loads, thalweg sinuosity increased to a maximum of 1.25. At slopes greater than 0.016, a braided channel formed. The model channels responded to increased sediment loads by maintaining steeper gradients and by major channel pattern changes, but at very gentle slopes and at steep slopes, the channel could not be forced to develop a meandering thalweg. These experiments suggest that landforms may not always respond progressively to altered conditions. Rather, dramatic morphologic changes can occur abruptly when critical erosional and (or) depositional threshold values are exceeded. The meandering-thalweg channel was not a meandering channel. A truly meandering channel with a sinuosity of 1.3 formed when a suspended-sediment load (3 percent concentrations of kaolinite) was introduced into the flow. The clay stabilized the alternate bars, and scour and deepening of the thalweg resulted. This in turn lowered the water level at constant discharge, and the alternate bars emerged o t form point bars. A meandering-thalweg channel was thus converted to a meandering channel by the type of sediment load change that has accompanied climatic and hydrologic changes of the recent geologic past.

724 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A method is presented that makes the classification of bed forms, the prediction of the bed‐form dimensions and the effective hydraulic roughness of the bed forms feasible. The proposed relationships are based on the analysis of reliable flume and field data. A verification analysis using about 1,500 (alternative) reliable flume and field data shows good results in predicting the hydraulic roughness (friction factor). For field conditions, the proposed method yields considerably better results than previously proposed methods, which are reviewed here. The proposed method has also been used to predict the flow depth and the total bed‐material load.

611 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A general hierarchical framework for viewing stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient channels is presented. We emphasize channel units—bed features that are one or more channel widths in length—as a particularly important scale of variation. Field studies in two streams in the Cascade Range in Oregon indicated that pool, riffle, rapid, cascade, and step channel units had distinct bed slope ranges, with average slopes of 0.005, 0.011, 0.029, 0.055, and 0.173, respectively. Steeper units (rapids and cascades) are composed of step-pool sequences created by particles representing the 90th or larger percentile size fraction of bed material. Step spacing is inversely proportional to bed slope. The distribution of channel units along a stream is influenced by bedrock and processes that introduce coarse sediment. Cascade and pool units dominate where landslide and debris-flow deposits constrict channel width and deliver large immobile boulders to the channel, whereas riffle and rapid units dominate in broad valley flats where deposition of finer sediment occurs. Markov chain analysis indicates that channel units occur in nonrandom two-unit sequences with the slope of the upstream unit inversely proportional to the slope of the next downstream unit. Pool-to-pool spacings average two to four channel widths, but variability in spacing is high, owing to uneven distribution of bedrock out-crops and boulder deposits within the channel. Hydraulic reconstruction indicates that channel units form during high- magnitude, low-frequency events with recurrence intervals of about 50 yr. Comparison of channel-unit morphology to high-gradient flume experiments with heterogenous bedload mixtures indicated that unit morphogenesis is linked to factors that cause congestion of large particles during bedload transport events; these include local constrictions in channel width, immobile bed material, and abrupt fluctuations in velocity due to hydraulic jumps that promote deposition. Channel units appear to be a two-dimensional bar form found in streams where gradients exceed 2%, bedload is widely sorted, and width-to-depth ratios and sediment supply are low—conditions found in many mountain environments.

449 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20223
2021126
2020141
2019121
2018161
2017135

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Roger A. Kuhnle

15 papers, 405 citations

Donatella Termini

12 papers, 136 citations

Vito Ferro

12 papers, 215 citations

Anton Schleiss

11 papers, 102 citations

Hossein Afzalimehr

9 papers, 78 citations