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Focal length

About: Focal length is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29145 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 285932 citation(s).
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03 Jan 1992-
TL;DR: A new technique for three-dimensional camera calibration for machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses using two-stage technique has advantage in terms of accuracy, speed, and versatility over existing state of the art.
Abstract: A new technique for three-dimensional (3D) camera calibration for machine vision metrology using off-the-shelf TV cameras and lenses is described. The two-stage technique is aimed at efficient computation of camera external position and orientation relative to object reference coordinate system as well as the effective focal length, radial lens distortion, and image scanning parameters. The two-stage technique has advantage in terms of accuracy, speed, and versatility over existing state of the art. A critical review of the state of the art is given in the beginning. A theoretical framework is established, supported by comprehensive proof in five appendixes, and may pave the way for future research on 3D robotics vision. Test results using real data are described. Both accuracy and speed are reported. The experimental results are analyzed and compared with theoretical prediction. Recent effort indicates that with slight modification, the two-stage calibration can be done in real time.

5,697 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A theoretical study is presented on the optimization of second harmonic generation (SHG) and parametric generation (PG) by a laser beam in a uniaxial nonlinear crystal. Numerically computed curves show the dependence of the SHG power, and the reciprocal of the PG threshold power, on the parameter l/b, where l is the optical path length in the crystal and b is the confocal parameter (determined by the focal length of the focusing lens and the minimum radius of the laser beam, assumed to be in the TEM00 mode of an optical resonator). The calculations take full account of diffraction and double refraction. In the absence of double refraction, the optimum focusing condition is found to be l/b=2.84. For PG the optimization of the crystal length l is also discussed, and curves are given showing the dependence of the threshold on l for the case in which signal and idler have the same losses. It is shown that the computed functions are also relevant to the mixing of two Gaussian beams and to parametric amplificat...

1,659 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Several conceivable methods for the formation of optical images by x-rays are considered, and a method employing concave mirrors is adopted as the most promising.
Abstract: Several conceivable methods for the formation of optical images by x-rays are considered, and a method employing concave mirrors is adopted as the most promising. A concave spherical mirror receiving radiation at grazing incidence (a necessary arrangement with x-rays) images a point into a line in accordance with a focal length f=Ri/2 where R is the radius of curvature and i the grazing angle. The image is subject to an aberration such that a ray reflected at the periphery of the mirror misses the focal point of central rays by a distance given approximately by S=1.5Mr2/R, where M is the magnification of the image and r is the radius of the mirror face. The theoretically possible resolving power is such as to resolve point objects separated by about 70A, a limit which is independent of the wave-length used. Point images of points and therefore extended images of extended objects may be produced by causing the radiation to reflect from two concave mirrors in series. Sample results are presented.

1,104 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We use electrocapillarity in order to change the contact angle of a transparent drop, thus realizing a lens of variable focal length (B. Berge, J. Peseux, Patent deposited in Grenoble France, October 8th 1997, numero d'enregistrement national 97 12781). The key point is the application of gradients of wettability, which control the shape of the drop edge, in our case a centered circle of variable radius. The quality and reversibility of the lens are surprisingly good. The optical power variation can be 5 to 10 times the one of the human eye, for a comparable diameter, with a typical response time of 0.03 s and a dissipated power of a few mW.

1,029 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The meniscus between two immiscible liquids can be used as an optical lens. A change in curvature of this meniscus by electrowetting leads to a change in focal distance. It is demonstrated that two liquids in a tube form a self-centered lens with a high optical quality. The motion of the lens during a focusing action was studied by observation through the transparent tube wall. Finally, a miniature achromatic camera module was designed and constructed based on this adjustable lens, showing that it is excellently suited for use in portable applications.

1,006 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20228
2021383
2020918
20191,115
20181,089
20171,103

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Takayuki Ito

56 papers, 351 citations

Hans Zappe

35 papers, 754 citations

Qiong-Hua Wang

26 papers, 162 citations

Susumu Sato

25 papers, 1.1K citations

Antonin Miks

21 papers, 156 citations